Fetal Cell Lines and Vaccines

 List of Vaccines that use fetal cell lines and the history.

If you prefer to listen to a conference on this issue.

Cell Lines:

 WI38- W=Wistar I=Institute 38= # of abortion used

  • tissue would be collected from the lungs of a female baby at 3 months gestation
  • 1964
  • The rubella virus clinically named RA273. R=Rubella, A=Abortus, 27=27th fetus, 3=3rd tissue explant, which was then cultivated on the WI-38 aborted fetal cell line. Stanley Plotkin would later reveal that 40 more babies were aborted after RA273 was successfully isolated, with virus strains taken from 34 of them. A total of over 80 separate abortions were involved in the research and final production of the present day rubella vaccine- 21 abortions from the original WI-1 through WI-26 fetal cell lines that failed, plus WI-38 itself, plus 67 from the attempts to isolate the rubella virus.

 

MRC5-

  • 1970
  • Introduced in Great Britain by the Medical Research Council
  • Cell line is derived from the lung tissue of a 14-week gestation male
  • 1977 MMR with fetal cell lines

Other references: http://www.biotech.ist.unige.it/cldb/cl5168.html

 

                              http://www.cogforlife.org/packageinsertsample.htm

 

What happens when the current cell lines expire? Cell lines age in accordance to the age of the fetus and can become cancerous. But they don’t know when that happens. The plan:

 

     “The cell line developed at Coriell, identified as IMR-90 was the first of several lines planned in support of NIA research programs…IMR-90 was developed and characterized in such a way as to parallel WI-38 as closely as possible to minimize the variables in replacing WI-38 within ongoing laboratory  programs … The IMR-90 cell line, like WI-38 was derived from the lung tissue of a human female        embryo following therapeutic abortion …Since the goal of establishing this cell line was a replacement for WI-38 in vaccine production, virus yields were compared for IMR-90, WI-38 and MRC-5 for a number of different viruses including varicella zoster, herpes simplex, vesicular stomatitits virus and cytomegalovirus.”  *there is also an MRI- 91.

 Per C6-

  • 2001
  • isolated retina from a fetus about 18 weeks old
  • This cell line was made to be ‘immortal’ but failed. It caused cancerous tumors in mice. Was used in the HIV vaccine trial but caused cancer so it  was pulled.
  • Crucell-advent of their PER C6 fetal cell line took off
  • PER C6 is a normal cell that has been modified to resist cell senescence. In doing so, it introduces the potential for cancer to form in the vaccine recipient.

Other Reference: http://www.cogforlife.org/xigris.htm

 

“However, a feature of regulatory importance associated with Ad5-transformed cells is their capacity to form tumors in immunodeficient animals such as nude mice. This framework is intended to examine, and wherever possible, to quantify the potential risk of “transmitting” the tumorigenic components of  the cell substrate used for vaccine production, and determine whether that “transmission” might pose a risk, particularly an oncogenic risk, to vaccinees. Factors that could influence the risk associated with the use of Designer Cell Substrates include (1) the known             mechanism of cell transformation leading to the development of tumorigenic cells; (2) residual cell substrate DNA; and (3) the presence of adventitious agents, especially oncogenic viruses.”

 * A continuous cell line would be considered immortal, if it contains cells that have no limits on how many times they can divide.

 Hek293-

  • Normal healthy fetus from Netherlands
  • Avian Flu in development
  • Eli Lily

Other references: http://www.cogforlife.org/xigris.htm

 

                              http://www.mbi.ufl.edu/~shaw/293.html

 

When new vaccine batches are needed, the virus is cultivated on the existing fetal cell lines, which in turn have been sub-cultured numerous times over the years. 

 

 It is listed in the vaccine package inserts that residual DNA, proteins, and components are present in the vaccines and would list MRC-5 or WI38 or human diploid cell lines. Like this.

 

Since those statements do not outright say “aborted fetal tissue“, some may not think twice about what exactly that is. It’s quite deceptive on the part of the pharmaceutical companies. Diploid cells  are “a cell that contains two sets of chromosomes (one set donated from each parent).

 

 It is already known that human DNA is absorbed into the baby’s cells which eventually go to the brain.  DNA from chick, duck, or monkey for example, rejects it as a foreign material. Haven’t we learned anything from the Polio vaccines and SV40?

 

 Use of protamine sulphate for elimination of substrate DNA in polio vaccines produced on continuous cell lines.

Cell substrate DNA was shown to be an abundant contaminant in the clarified preparations of the Sabin type 1, 2 and 3 poliovaccines produced on a continuous cell line (4647). The size of the DNA, as evaluated for the Sabin type 1 poliovaccine, was highly heterogeneous, ranging from 100 to 20,000 base pairs. In view of potential oncogenicity of this DNA a simple and efficient procedure for its elimination is proposed. The method is based on use of protamine sulphate which at the concentration of 2.0 mg ml-1 precipitated cell DNA almost completely without affecting the virus titres.

Do your own Pubmed search and see what you find.

Why are aborted fetuses being used?

  •  Economics
  • Patents-every time a cell line is used, the patent holder gets a cut
  • Receive Federal funding for the use of aborted fetuses. Started in the Clinton era and Bush approved partial funding and for stem cell research

 WHO has been allowing the use of continuous fetal cell lines since 1986. The FDA simply reminds the pharmaceutical makers to be “free of residual intact Vero cells. If your manufacturing process does not include a validated filtration step or other validated procedure to clear residual intact Vero cells from the product, please incorporate such a procedure into your manufacturing process and submit the appropriate changes.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Rotavirus and the Vaccines

Rotateq package insert 

It is a LIVE vaccine so it can shed to others:

Shedding was evaluated among a subset of subjects in REST 4 to 6 days after each dose and among all subjects who submitted a stool antigen rotavirus positive sample at any time. RotaTeq was shed in the stools of 32 of 360 [8.9%, 95% CI (6.2%, 12.3%)] vaccine recipients tested after dose 1; 0 of 249 [0.0%,95% CI (0.0%, 1.5%)] vaccine recipients tested after dose 2; and in 1 of 385 [0.3%, 95% CI (<0.1%,1.4%)] vaccine recipients after dose 3. In phase 3 studies, shedding was observed as early as 1 day and as late as 15 days after a dose. Transmission was not evaluated. There is a theoretical risk that the live virus vaccine can be transmitted to non-vaccinated contacts. The potential risk of transmission of vaccine virus should be weighed against the risk of acquiring and transmitting natural rotavirus.  

RotaTeq contains five human-bovine (cow) reassortment rotaviruses out of many more for which there is no vaccine for.
 

T
here were no long term studies of RotaTeq in combination with 7 other vaccines, even though RotaTeq is given in addition to them. 

 The number of cases of intussusception in the clinical trials of the Rotateq was similiar to the old Rotashield which was recalled.

 Kawasaki Syndrome and RotaTeq Vaccine

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a revised label for RotaTeq®, a rotavirus vaccine manufactured by Merck and Co., Inc., to include information on reports of Kawasaki syndrome occurring before and after the vaccine’s licensure in February 2006. FDA has not made any changes to its indications for use of RotaTeq nor has it issued new or revised warnings or precautions. Likewise, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has not made any changes in its recommendations regarding the use of RotaTeq. Healthcare providers and parents should remain confident in using RotaTeq in infants.

The number of cases of intussusception in the clinical trials of the Rotateq was similiar to the old Rotashield vaccine which was recalled.   

Rotarix: was approved in 2008.

Just 2 months before the approval:

FDA ties pneumonia deaths to infant vaccine.

GlaxoSmithKline Plc’s rotavirus vaccine is associated with increased pneumonia-related deaths and other adverse reactions, U.S. regulatory staff said in documents posted on Friday.

FDA staff said its analysis of 11 studies revealed that in the largest trial, there was a statistically significant increase in deaths related to pneumonia compared with placebo, documents posted on the FDA’s Web site said.

That study, which enrolled about 63,000 children, also found an increase in convulsions in children given the drug, named Rotarix. Another study found an increased rate of bronchitis, compared with placebo. (Reuters 2/15/2008)

Infant diarrhea when managed properly is rarely fatal in the US and thus provides natural immunity. Does the vaccine? No one knows. Besides, a fully breastfed baby is naturally protected from Rotavirus. 
 
 
 
 

 

Tetanus

Tetanus vaccine is used as a ‘just in case’ scenario if the spores start replicating and producing a deadly toxin. This toxin can get into the bloodstream and then the central nervous system. The spores do not cause the disease; the toxin does. Tetanus can survive anywhere as a spore. The spore is incapable of causing illness in the presence of oxygen. Any wound that is getting a good supply of oxygen won’t allow the bacteria to thrive and begin to secret toxin. A minor wound like a scrape will be oxygenated just because it’s open to the air. A puncture wound should receive oxygen through circulating blood, so even puncture wounds shouldn’t be a problem for healthy children and adults with good circulation, as long as you clean them well. Burns and crushing wounds are more likely to become infected with tetanus, especially burns, since those types of injuries can destroy blood vessels in the area.

 

Tetanus was rare prior to the introduction of the tetanus vaccine. The decline of tetanus is attributed to proper wound management and sanitary conditions. If no vaccine was developed, cases would have declined regardless.  The CDC claims more than 1/2 the U.S. adult population is not protected against tetanus, yet where are the millions contracting tetanus today?  Where were the millions with tetanus before vaccination? I encourage you to look and try to find them but be warned, it will be like looking for a needle in a haystack. Universal tetanus vaccination, including making it mandatory for school entry across the country, is the biggest scam. No one can use the use the ‘herd immunity’ argument with tetanus since it’s not communicable. 

When a person gets tetanus from an injury (deep puncture wound that doesn’t bleed) and recovers, he is not immune. We can get tetanus repeatedly in our lives.  If the body can not build immunity from a natural toxin, how can we expect the vaccine to do that? 

 

A 1969 article from the New England Medical Journal, Volume 280, Number 11, March 13, page 570, is an interesting decline graph for mortality rates. It shows that the mortality (death) rate plummeted dramatically from 64/100,000 in 1900 to 8/100,000, in 1940.  By 1950, with most mothers still unvaccinated, it was 4.5/100,000. They say that it may have been the use of anti-toxin from 1923. Well, the antitoxin can kill all by itself, because it is made in horses, and has horrendous side-effects of its own. Some people treated with anti-tetanus toxoid, will die of the toxoid side-effects. There are plenty of people around in the USA who have never been vaccinated, including the Amish, who work with horses (horse manure is conductive to tetanus) and they haven’t died out as a community.

 

An interesting study in the American Journal of Public Health, August 1984, Vol 74, No 8, reported that in 1,900 adults over 20 years of age, the overall percentage immunized was 38.6%. So where are all the unimmunized adults dying from tetanus again?

 

According to Center for Disease Control (CDC) tetanus vaccine experts, The 1988 to 1991 serosurvey indicated that 20 per cent of children 10 to 16 years of age did not have a protective level of antibody. A 1979 study found that in a sample of 1900 adults over 20 years of age, only 386 per cent were fully immunised. If we extrapolate from that study alone, about 120 million or so citizens (60 per cent of 200 million) were unprotected yet virtually none of them was getting tetanus, let alone dying from it. Walene James, in her book Immunization: the Reality Behind the Myth, points out that in the United States in 1990 there were 25,700 cases of tuberculosis with 1800 deaths, tuberculosis therefore immensely outweighing tetanus as a cause of death. (Mothers of unvaccinated children who might be worried about them contracting tetanus because theyve just joined the pony club, take note!) In the United States, with an average of seven to 10 deaths per year from tetanus, there is a 180 to 260-times greater chance of dying from tuberculosis. In fact, since lightning strikes about 1800 people a year in that country, with an approximate mortality rate of 25 per cent (450 deaths), there is a 45-times greater chance of being killed by lightning than tetanus! (Ref: Tetanus Vaccination by Jason Sanders  Issue, 97 Page, 22)

  

The medical profession likes to state that a person does not acquire natural immunity to tetanus. Maybe they haven’t read that in 1975, in Dakar, in the proceeding of the 4th international symposium on tetanus, they talked about “latent” natural immunity causing reactions to primary immunization.  A study in JAMA Nov 19, 1982, Volume 248, No 19, showed a large number of the unvaccinated Amish showed serological evidence of immunity to both diphtheria and tetanus. There are several medical studies that tested unvaccinated people in various countries and found that they had anti-tetanus toxin antibodies. The WHO prefers to overlook this fact.

 

The tetanus vaccine takes 1-3 weeks to take effect, which is longer than the incubation period for tetanus.  The first 1-2 doses of tetanus vaccine does not confer any immunity, but simply “primes the immune system” to respond to future doses, according to the CDC.  If you are concerned about a specific injury/wound, the immunoglobulin confers immediate immunity for the duration of the incubation period. The immune globulin is blood/fluid which already contains antibodies to tetanus. The immunoglobin is also a risk since it’s a blood product so you would want to sure it was warranted.

 

“Tetanus immune globulin is not a vaccine. It is a preparation that is made from serum (part of the blood) from a person or animal (such as a horse) that contains antibodies against tetanus. It provides immediate, short-term protection against the disorder, but does not provide long-term immunization. It can be used when someone is believed to have been exposed to the bacteria…” …tetanus toxoid is of no value unless the individual has previously been vaccinated, since a primary antibody response takes at least 14 days, and the incubation period of the disease can be considerably shorter than this (three to 14 days).

“..tetanus toxoid is of no value unless the individual has previously been vaccinated, since a primary antibody response takes at least 14 days, and the incubation period of the disease can be considerably shorter than this (three to 14 days)..If you do decide to vaccinate your children with tetanus toxoid alone, there is no need to vaccinate until the child is old enough to walk around and navigate on his or her own (18 to 24 months), at which time the vaccine is far less likely to cause complications.”

 “The incubation period (for tetanus) varies from 3 to 21 days, usually about 8
days. In general the further the injury site is from the central nervous system, the longer the incubation period. The shorter the incubation period, the higher the chance of death.”

 

Gammaglobulin:

 

It’s not just antibodies because any blood product has to be treated because since blood contains a lot of things other than just red cells. Viruses and bacteria can get in there as its part of the immune system which is why they take the antibodies from blood.

A good read:

 

Normal serum contains IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies, which are referred to as natural antibodies because they are induced without deliberate immunization and are independent of antigenic exposure. They are considered key to the immunoregulatory effects of immune globulin in immune-mediated disorders (Kazatchkine, 2001). Natural autoantibodies appear to be more polyreactive than immune antibodies; natural antibodies can frequently bind to different antigens (Kazatchkine, 2001). Natural autoantibodies can (1) bind to pathogens; (2) help remove senescent or altered molecules, cells, and tumors; (3) induce remyelination; and (4) inhibit the growth of autoreactive B-cell clones.

IVIG contains cytokines, antibodies of unclear clinical significance, perhaps neutralizing; interestingly, antibodies against granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon, interleukin 1, and interleukin 6 in immune globulin have biologic activity in vivo (Kazatchkine, 2001). IVIG contains natural antibodies, accounting for some of its effects.

 The IVIG that is available contains complete IgG molecules. The IgG subclasses match those in normal human serum. Most preparations contain trace amounts of IgA, which can sensitize IgA-deficient persons during long-term treatment. Immune globulin also contains trace amounts of cytokines, soluble CD4, CD8, and HLA molecules.

 

Prevalence of hepatitis C virus in plasma pools and the effectiveness of cold ethanol fractionation.

 

Screening blood donations for antibodies against hepatitis C virus (HCV) greatly reduces the risk of transmitting HCV by transfusions. However, despite such screening programs, plasma pools still contain a high percentage of HCV ribonucleic acid as determined by polymerase chain reaction. This result would not be alarming if the procedures for producing blood products included steps to inactivate or remove HCV. Although this appeared to be the case for all blood products, such as coagulation factors and most immunoglobulins, which are subjected to an inactivation step, the effectiveness of the cold ethanol fractionation process still needed to be determined. In validation experiments using bovine viral diarrhea virus as a model virus for HCV, we demonstrated that the Cohn-Oncley cold ethanol fractionation process neither inactivated nor removed this virus sufficiently. Our observations may help to explain how HCV was transmitted to a number of recipients of intravenous immunoglobulin.

 Tetanus Vaccination by Dr Mendelsohn MD (The People’s Doctor Newsletter 1976-1988)

1) Scientific evidence shows that too—frequent tetanus boosters actually may interfere with the immune reaction.

2) There has been a gradual retreat of even the most conservative authorities from giving tetanus boosters every one year to every two years to every five years to every 10 years (as now recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics), and according to some, every 20 years. All these numbers are based on guesses rather than on hard scientific evidence.

3) There has been a growing recognition that no controlled scientific study (in which half the patients were given the vaccine and the other half were given injections of sterile water) has ever been carried out to prove the safety and effectiveness of the tetanus vaccine. Evidence for the vaccine comes from epidemiologic studies which are by nature controversial and which do not satisfy the criteria for scientific proof.

4) The tetanus vaccine over the decades has been progressively weakened in order to reduce the considerable reaction (fever and swelling) it used to cause. Accompanying this reduction in reactivity has been a concomitant reduction in antigenicity (the ability to confer protection). Therefore, there is a good chance that today’s tetanus vaccine is about as effective as tap water.

5) Until the last few years, government statistics admitted that 40 percent of the child population of the U.S. was not immunized. For all those decades, where were the tetanus cases from all those rusty nails?

6) There now exists a growing theoretical concern which links immunizations to the huge increase in recent decades of auto—immune diseases, e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, lupus erythematosus, lymphoma, and leukemia. In one case, Guillain—Barre paralysis from swine flu vaccine, the relationship turned out to be more than just theoretical.

In preparing my courtroom testimony on behalf of a child who allegedly was brain—damaged as a result of the DPT (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus) vaccine, I reviewed the prescribing information (package insert) for the Connaught Laboratories product which was administered to this child. The 1975 and 1977 package insert information which measured seven—and—a—half inches long listed three scientific references in support of the indications, contraindications, warnings, cautions, and adverse reactions to this vaccine. By 1978, the length of the insert had grown to 13 1/2 inches, and the number of scientific references had increased to 11. By 1980, the package insert was 18 inches long, and the references numbered 14. Of those newly—added references, seven (three from U.S. medical journals and four from foreign medical journals) dealt specifically with reactions to the tetanus DPT portion of the (toxoid) vaccine.

The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 1973, carried an article entitled “Hypersensitivity to Tetanus Toxoid,” and in a volume entitled “Proceedings of the II International Conference on Tetanus” (published by Hans Huber, Bern, Switzerland, 1967), an article appeared entitled “Clinical Reactions to Tetanus Toxoid.”

 

Basics:

 

1. A wound that bleeds can not grow tetanus 
 
2. Tetanus vaccine creates no reaction in the body for 3 weeks while tetanus grows within 10 days (but never in a wound that bleeds!) 
 
3. The body can not build immunity to the poisons nor the vaccine 
 

4. Children do not get tetanus. Their circulatory system is designed that way. (Only exception is in Africa where the umbilical stump is covered with mud.)

 

Health Measures-

 

-Use hydrogen peroxide. It cleans out the wound and the bubbles provide the oxygen needed.

– Let the wound bleed.

 

Immunity wanes after 10 yrs in most people and rare cases of fully immunized persons contracting and dying from tetanus have occurred. Tetanus is a clinical diagnosis and laboratory confirmation of infection is only found in about 30% of cases. The organism can be isolated in those without tetanus as well.
Overuse of the vaccine can result in hypersensitivity to tetanus and more severe infection-as documented in those with recent and/or over-frequent booster doses.

References and some good reads:

 

Immunity to tetanus: tetanus antitoxin and anti-BIIb in human sera.

Severe tetanus in immunized patients with high anti-tetanus titers

 

Relation between protective potency and specificity of antibodies in sera of tetanus immunized individuals

 

Response to single dose of tetanus vaccine in subjects with naturally acquired tetanus antitoxin 

 

Naturally acquired tetanus antitoxin in the serum of children and adults in Mali

 

Naturally acquired immunity to tetanus toxin in an isolated community

 

New concepts on tetanus immunization: naturally acquired immunity

 

HCG in the Tetanus vaccines?

 

This issue was raised by a Roman Catholic priest in Mexico. He stated that many of the vaccinated women were miscarrying or could no longer conceive. The vaccine was tested by three groups and found to have had hcg in it. Women in other countries had the same thing happen. WHO got involved and shoved it all under a rug and denied everything. But think about it…if the focus was on tetanus protection for all of the people, why were only woman getting vaccinated? The 1995 BBC Horizon program was called “The Human Laboratory”, and was never shown in USA.

 

The same BBC documentary reported that women in the Philippines and Mexico have also been used as guinea pigs for a new experimental pregnancy vaccine. The HCG vaccine makes a woman’s body reject new pregnancies. …, it has been administered, without the consent or knowledge of patients, as a “piggyback” vaccine in a series of tetanus vaccine programs.
…But when women who had recently received the “tetanus vaccine” began having an inordinate number of miscarriages, this bureaucratic curiosity turned into charges of conspiracy. Subsequent lab tests of the tetanus vaccine confirmed it had indeed been laced with an HCG vaccine.

 Subacute tetanus:

 

The clinical recognition of subacute tetanus.

The clinical features of a modified form of tetanus, termed ‘subacute tetanus’, occurring in non-immune patients are presented as manifested in five patients. Subacute tetanus has a good prognosis and favourable outcome. Trismus and abdominal rigidity may be minimal or absent. Nocturnal, brief generalized muscle spasms, palpably contracted sternomastoid muscles and spastic limbs are common features of the disease. The pathophysiology of the nocturnal muscle spasms requires elucidation.

Now compare it with this: Tetanus of immunized children

Five children aged five to 15 years contracted tetanus in Finland between 1969 and 1985, together with 101 adults. Four of the five had been adequately immunized against tetanus. The clinical picture of tetanus was mild or moderate, and none of the children needed respirator treatment. Epilepsy, meningitis and psychogenic symptoms were considered in the differential diagnosis. The course of tetanus in immunized patients is atypical and often benign, but the diagnosis is problematic–in contrast to affected children in developing countries, whose populations are not adequately immunized and where neonatal tetanus is common and often fatal.

It is mainly elderly people who die from tetanus. There is evidence that suggests that poor nutrition and lifestyle habits that impedes the immune system, which is connected to susceptibility, and usually in tandem with the age factor. Improved wound care has also greatly improved from the early 19th century.

 


Vitamin C and immunity:

The small minority of people who develop tetanus from trivial wounds are and the statistics are suggestive likely to be immune deficient, either because of old age, chronic ill-health, poor diet or drug taking (I include smoking and heavy drinking in this category) and most likely a combination of these factors. Many elderly people, as a result of poor appetite, have a diet lacking in essential vitamins and minerals. The same goes for intravenous drug users, another group prone to tetanus.

Linus Pauling, double Nobel Laureate scientist and expert on vitamin C, believed sub-clinical scurvy from vitamin C deficiency was widespread amongst senior citizens, making them prone to many illnesses. Vitamin C is a nutrient that is critical for immunity, so it should perhaps come as no surprise to learn it can be specifically curative. Doctor Fred Klenner, a North Carolina physician, outlined in various papers published from 1948 to 1974 his success with using intravenous mega-doses of ascorbate to deactivate tetanus spores and their toxin. This makes sense, because vitamin C removes toxins from the bloodstream while also enhancing white blood cell activity. In addition, since vitamin C is vital to collagen formation and has been proven to speed wound healing time, it is possible it also helps the body isolate and contain tetanus at the wound site. (Wounds can apparently break down if the body lacks vitamin C in the tissues.) Perhaps this is one reason why smokers may be a little more prone to tetanus, since they are known to have less vitamin C in the body. Vaccine researcher Hillary Butler says she has personally known only two people who contracted tetanus and both were middle-aged people who drank and smoked heavily and had poor diets.

Tetanus vaccination makes the body unsusceptible to the disease by inducing production of neutralising antibody (or antitoxin) to the tetanus toxin; this is the result of introducing weakened toxin into the body (the vaccine contains no attenuated bacilli). Therefore, it seems ludicrous to suppose sub-clinical (non-disease manifesting) contact with the bacilli such as we all must be experiencing regularly can’t do the same. Indeed, the comprehensive and authoritative Vaccines edited by S.A. Plotkin and W.A. Orenstein alludes to this: Studies in the developing world and some developed nations … have shown substantial proportions of some reportedly unimmunized populations … [to have] detectable levels of antitoxin. Specifically, up to 80 per cent of people in India and up to 95 per cent of people in a group of Ethiopian refugees had levels of antitoxin [considered protective]. However, these pro-vaccine establishment authors dismissed the findings by concluding, Even if natural immunity occurs in some unimmunized populations, it has no substantial importance in the control of tetanus.

In the case of tetanus, while better general health as a result of social change has to be a factor in the declining mortality rate, the most important reason was that wound care techniques and sterilization procedures greatly advanced in this period. It meant fewer women contracted tetanus after giving birth, less people contracted it from surgery and far fewer babies contracted it when the umbilical cord was cut. According to Plotkin and Orenstein, in the United States there were 90 per cent less tetanus deaths occurring in babies in 1930 than in 1900. Today, the World Heath Organization estimates that 400,000 babies in the Third World die each year of tetanus because of the use of unsterile cutting instruments and poor neonatal care while the umbilical stump heals. (Ref: Tetanus Vaccination by Jason Sanders  Issue, 97)

New Generation Vaccine?

GlaxoSmithKline is touting new, late-stage data that demonstrates how its experimental pediatric vaccine Synflorix effectively protects children from pneumococcal disease. Glaxo filed Synflorix for review by the EMEA at the beginning of the year. The new data illustrates its protection against 10 strains of streptococcus pneumoniae, which includes bacteria that causes meningitis, pneumonia and ear infections. If Glaxo prevails in its quest for regulatory approval, Synflorix will go up against Wyeth’s Prevnar, which targets seven of the 10 strains.

“The data presented today are extremely encouraging and represent a major step forward to a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine formulation, specifically designed to address the global epidemiology of pneumococcal disease in both developed and developing countries,” says Jean Stéphenne, president of GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals.

Encouraging? Maybe they missed the part where babies have died during the trials. Or maybe they find those babies simply..expendable? Informed Consent, what happened to that? Read excerpts below…

Authorities in Argentina are investigating whether there is a link between the deaths of 14 children and an experimental vaccine.

The children took Synflorix as part of a clinical trial run by the British pharmaceutical company Glaxo-SmithKline.

Synflorix is also being tested in Panama, Chile and some European countries, but it is not being tested in Britain.

The company is still enrolling participants. But officials at Argentina’s food and drug administration said the agency had ‘received complaints about irregularities in the recruitment of patients’ for the drug trial and on July 31 asked that recruitment be suspended.
GSK stopped recruiting the following day, saying it had already gathered the necessary number of participants.
Ana Maria Marchesse, who heads one of two groups that notified the national food and drug administration, said that she had witnessed ‘poor ethical management’ of patient recruitment, with participants being unaware they were being given an experimental drug.

Data from other studies shows that the vaccine is about as safe and tolerable as competitor Wyeth’s Prevnar, a vaccine widely used against pneumococcal disease, Miss Alpsach added.

However, the Argentinian province of Santiago del Estero is conducting a separate inquiry into the deaths of the seven children there, local health minister Franklin Moyano said.

 

 

 

In Argentina…Did Glaxo know that many of those who signed consent forms were illiterate? They also gave the vaccine first, then a consent form afterwards. When asked to have recruitment suspended for safety reasons, they just happen to have enough ‘guinea pigs’…
I don’t know about you, but something sure smells funny to me..

 Remember the name, Synflorix, as it may be knocking on your doctor’s door soon. It is expected to go up against the present Prevnar vaccine that targets only 7 strains. Wyeth, they hope to have their new version, that targets 13 strains, out by 2009.

 

 

 

 

 

 

HIB Vaccines

Package Inserts

ActHib and OmniHib are conjugated with tetanus toxoid.

Hib Titer is conjugated with mutant diphtheria protein.

PedvaxHib and Comvax are conjugated with meningococcal group B outer membrane protein.

 

 Efficacy? The information varies based on the brand of vaccine. Table 2 at the end of this page http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwr…m#00001680.htm tells how effective each dose number is.

Efficacy:

Results of efficacy trials among infants are available for the three conjugate vaccines. The first efficacy trial of an Hib conjugate vaccine among infants was completed in Finland using the PRP-D vaccine. In a systematic, unblinded trial involving 60,000 infants (30,000 of whom received the vaccine at 3, 4, and 6 months of age), the point estimate of efficacy was 87% (95% CI = 50%-96%) (10). In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 2,102 Alaskan Natives, however, the point estimate of efficacy was 35% (95% CI = (-57%)-73%) (11). Immunogenicity of the vaccine was limited in both trials. In the Finnish trial, less than 40% of infants had attained an antibody level of greater than 1 ug/mL 1 month after receiving the third of three doses (geometric mean titer (GMT) = 0.42 ug/mL). In Alaska, infants with a similar vaccination schedule had lower mean titers (GMT = 0.2 ug/mL) 3 months after receiving the third dose. A subsequent immunogenicity study documented antibody responses that were similar to those in the Alaskan and Finnish efficacy trials.

ActHib (Sanofi): ActHib was tested for safety by giving one group ActHib w/ DTP and the control group was given Hepatitis B w/ DTP. Here is an excerpt from the product insert:

 In a randomized, double-blind US clinical trial, ActHIB® was given concomitantly with DTP to more than 5,000 infants and Hepatitis B vaccine was given with DTP to a similar number.
In this large study, deaths due to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and other causes were observed but were not different in the two groups.
In the first 48 hours following immunization, two definite and three possible seizures were observed after ActHIB® and DTP in comparison with none after Hepatitis B vaccine and DTP. This rate of seizures following ActHIB® and DTP was not greater than previously reported in infants receiving DTP alone. (Refer to product insert for AvP DTP.) Other adverse reactions reported with administration of other Haemophilus b conjugate vaccines include urticaria, seizures, hives, renal failure and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). A cause and effect relationship among any of these events and the vaccination has not been established.

Children are at more risk of getting Hib disease right after vaccination.  

Studies from Science News warn of increased susceptability to the disease during the first 7 days after vaccination. The AAP has warned doctors to look for signs of the disease following vaccination (AAP policy statement.) Several studies have found that that Hib vaccinated children are up to 6 times more likely than non Hib vaccinated children to contract Hib during the first week following vaccination. (Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal and JAMA). 
 
In one study of children who got Hib at least 3 weeks after their vaccination, 70% developed meningitis. Additional research shows that antibody levels DECLINE rather than increase immediately following Hib vaccination, even with the newer conjugated vaccines. (Journal of Pediatrics, Pediatrics, and Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal.) 
 

Who are the highest risks?

 Children from lower socioeconomic families are at highest risk for getting Hib disease. (Physicians Desk Reference, 53rd edition, 1999 pg 3072)

Thirty-two percent of children aged 6–59 months with confirmed type b disease had received three or more doses of HIB vaccine, including 22 who had received a booster dose 14 or more days before onset of their illness. The cause of Hib vaccine failure in these children is not known.

Vaccine Linked with Diabetes:

 The British Medical Journal warns about the dangers of childhood vaccines. Investigators pooled data on roughly 116,000 Finnish children who received Heamophisis Influenza type b vaccine at either 3 or 24 months of age. These children were compared with 128,5000 children who did not receive the vaccine.
Subjects were reevaluated at age 10. The study’s author found that “immunizations starting after the age of 2 months is associated with an increased risk of diabetes. Our analysis is further associated with a similar rise in diabetis after immunization with H influenzae type b vaccine in the US and UK. Furthermore, the increased risk of of diabetes in the vaccinated group exceeds the expected decreased risk of complication of H influenzae meningitis.

Research into immunisation has been based on the theory that the benefits of immunisation far outweigh the risks from delayed adverse events and so long term safety studies do not need to be performed. When looking at diabetes only one potential chronic adverse event we found that the rise in the prevalence of diabetes may more than offset the expected decline in long term complications of H influenzae meningitis. Thus diabetes induced by vaccine should not be considered a rare potential adverse event. The incidence of many other chronic immunological diseases, including asthma, allergies, and immune mediated cancers, has risen rapidly and may also be linked to immunisation. Classen JB, Claussen DC. Public should be told that vaccines may have long term adverse effects. (Brit Med Journal 1999 (Jan 16);   318 (7177):193 full text)

 

 

 

The Hib vaccine can cause adverse reactions such as convulsions, allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis, vomiting, and serum sickness-like reactions. The FDA did not recognize these reactions when licensure was granted. Incidence of Hib type meningitis peaks between 6-11 months.
Daum RS, Sood SK, Osterholm, MT et. al.   Decline in serum antibody to the capsule of Haemophilus influenzae type b in the immediate postimmunization period   J Pediatr. 1989 (May);   114 (5):   742-747
Milstien JB, Gross TP, Kuritsky JN  
Adverse reactions reported following receipt of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine: an analysis after 1 year of marketing   Pediatrics 1987 (Aug);   80 (2):   270-274.

The “Finnish” study, upon which license was granted, showed the vaccine was  ineffective for infants 3-17 months of age.
Peltola H, Kayhty H, Sivonen A, Makela H   Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide vaccine in children: a double-blind field study of 100,000 vaccinees 3 months to 5 years of age in Finland.   Pediatrics 1977 (Nov);   60 (5):   730-737.
Shinefield HR, Hiatt RA, Fireman BH   Efficacy of Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide vaccine.   Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1988 (Mar);   7 (3):   149-156
Shapiro ED, Murphy TV, Wald ER, Brady CA   The protective efficacy of Haemophilus b polysaccharide vaccine.   JAMA. 1988 (Sep 9);   260 (10):   1419-1422
Harrison LH, Broome CV, Hightower AW, Hoppe CC, Makintubee S, Sitze SLA day care-based study of the efficacy of Haemophilus b polysaccharide vaccine.   JAMA 1988 (Sep 9);   260 (10):   1413-1418

Other studies showed the vaccine has no efficacy at all:
Ward JI, Broome CV, Harrison LH, Shinefield H, Black S   Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines: lessons for the future   Pediatrics 1988 (Jun);   81 (6):   886-893.
Osterholm MT, Rambeck JH, White KE, Jacobs JL, Pierson LM, Neaton JD, Hedberg   Lack of efficacy of Haemophilus b polysaccharide vaccine in Minnesota   JAMA 1988 (Sep 9);   260 (10):   1423-1428.
Ward J, Brenneman G, Letson GW, Heyward WL   Limited efficacy of a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in Alaska Native infants. The Alaska H. influenzae Vaccine Study Group   N Engl J Med 1990 (Nov 15);   323 (20):   1393-1401

 

 

 

The C.D.C. stated “Efficacy of the conjugate vaccine (currently being used) has not been determined in field trials. MMWR 1988, Vol. 37, RR-37, pp. 13-16.

Your baby will actually become more susceptible to meningitis for up to 3 weeks following vaccination.  Daum RS, Sood SK, Osterholm, MT et. al.   Decline in serum antibody to the capsule of Haemophilus influenzae type b in the immediate postimmunization period.   J Pediatr. 1989 (May);   114 (5):   742-747.
Ward J, Brenneman G, Letson GW, Heyward WL   Limited efficacy of a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in Alaska Native infants. The Alaska H. influenzae Vaccine Study Group.   N Engl J Med 1990 (Nov 15);   323 (20):   1393-1401
Sood SK, Schreiber JR, Siber GR, Daum RS.   Postvaccination susceptibility to invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in infant rats.   J Pediatr 1988 (Nov);   113 (5):   814-819.
Hiner EE, Frasch CE   Spectrum of disease due to Haemophilus influenzae type b occurring in vaccinated children.   J Infect Dis 1988 (Aug);   158 (2):   343-348.
Granoff DM, Shackelford PG, Suarez BK, Nahm MH et. al. Hemophilus influenzae type B disease in children vaccinated with type B polysaccharide vaccine. N Engl J Med 1986 Dec 18;315(25):1584-1590. Ward J   Newer Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines and passive prophylaxis.   Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1987 (Aug);   6 (8):   799-803.
 The risk of contracting meningitis one week after vaccination is 6.4-1.8 times greater than unvaccinated children.
Sood SK, Schreiber JR, Siber GR, Daum RS   Postvaccination susceptibility to invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in infant rats   J Pediatr 1988 (Nov);   113 (5):   814-819.

41% of cases of Hib occurred in vaccinated individuals. The vaccine’s protective efficacy is about negative 58%.  You are more likely to get Hib if you are vaccinated.
Osterholm MT, Rambeck JH, White KE, Jacobs JL, Pierson LM, Neaton JD, Hedberg   Lack of efficacy of Haemophilus b polysaccharide vaccine in Minnesota.   JAMA 1988 (Sep 9);   260 (10): 1423-1428.

The widespread use of the Hemophilus influenza vaccine in 1986 was followed by a 62% rise (16 cases/100,000 children to 29.2 cases/100,000) in the incidence of diabetes in the 0-4 age group between the years 1980-1982 and 1990-1992.
Tuomilehto J, Virtala E, Karvonen M, Lounamaa R, Pikaniemi J et. al.   Increase in incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus among children in Finland   Int J Epidemiol 1995 (Oct);   24 (5):   984-992.

The incidence of IDDM also rose in the young children 2-3 year olds after the first dose of HiB was introduced.
Classen DC, Classen JB   The timing of pediatric immunization and the risk of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus   Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice 1997;   6:   449-454.
Drastic rises in the incidence of IDDM have been reported in the US and the UK after the introduction of the HiB vaccine.
 An epidemic of diabetes in the 0-4 age group occurred during the years 1985-1989 in Allegheny County at the time when the Hemophilus influenza vaccine was being incorporated into the immunization schedule. The annual incidence of IDDM in 0-4 year  olds living in Allegheny county rose 60% from the years 1980-1984 (10 cases/100,000) to 1985-1989 (16 cases/100,000). The incidence of diabetes in  0-4 year olds had been consistently below 10 cases/100,000 from 1965-1984.  The incidence of IDDM in this age group is expected to rise even higher since  the maximum effect of the HiB vaccine on IDDm is not seen until 4 years after  immunization.
 India appears to have a high rate of natural immunity:

 Studies from the early 1970’s might hold an explanation for this phenomenon. It is known that other bacteria have cross-reactive antigens to the Hib capsular polysaccharide. In an elegant experiment with burros, Bradshaw et al demonstrated the development of serologically specific precipitate antibodies to Hib after immunization of animals with Stephylococcus aureas and Bacillus subtillis. Strains of Staphylococci, Group D. Streptococci, Diphtheroids and Escherichia coli have been found with cross-reactive antigens to Hib. Robbins et al have demonstrated that infants show enhanced immune response to H influenzae capsular polysaccharide when they have concurrent cross reacting E. coli infection of the gut. Under these circumstances, a rapid and sustained rise in antibody to Hib was noted. E. Coli are ubiquitous in developing countries like India and their presence in the gut may have helped to stimulate antibody to Hib in the subjects reported….. There is thus a great potential for savings to be made in vaccination us in developing countries, if this finding is further substantiated. (Puliyel JM, Agarwal KS, Abass FA. Natural immunity to haemophilus b in infancy in Indian children. Vaccine 2001; 19: 4592-4594.)

 

 Hib and E Coli are not killers in undeveloped countries because the people can’t afford antibiotics. When you use antibiotics, the gut flora becomes unbalanced and causes E. Coli numbers to explode; making them very dangerous. Antibiotics kill E.Coli, and by doing so, can kill. The bacterial cell walls become endotoxin which cannot be processed by the liver and thus the person dies from antibiotic-induced endotoxic shock. Since 70% of the immune system resides in the gut, if you use antibiotics too much, not only do you create imbalances, you also create situations where you wouldn’t get good levels of diverse ‘good’ flora, so that they can make good levels of immunity to Hib.

Vaccine Discussion with Tedd Koren, D.C.

Part 1:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JbNRdx1_7aU

Part 2:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GrEKiOKcUOI&feature=related

Part 3:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IkOyao2XoLs&feature=related

Part 4:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BbuKaO_ieuw&feature=related

He formed The Foundation for Health Choice www.foundationforhealthchoice.com with Jim Turner, Esq to fight for healthcare freedom.  They helped Arkansas obtain a philosophical as well as religious exemption for vaccination.

Hepatitis B Vaccines

Hepatitis B Vaccines:

·         Engerix B

·         Recombivax HB

·         Twinrix (Hep A and B)

·         Pediarix (DTaP, IPV and Hep B)

·         Comvax (Hep B and HIB)

·         Nabi-HB = Immune Globulin

 ·         Bay Hep B = Immune Globulin (human)

 ·         HB-vax II

·         PTY LTD

 ·          Hexa (DTaP, Hep B, HIB, IPV)

Contains Thimerosal (mercury): Engerix B and Twinrix

Contains Aluminum: Pediarix, Recombivax, Comvax

Contains Fetal Cell lines: Twinrix (MRC-5)Hexa (MRC-5)

Energix B (Hep B) Glaxo:  

The CONTROL GROUP received plasma-derived vaccines. The vaccines administered to the CONTROL GROUP are not revealed.

Ten double-blind studies involving 2,252 subjects showed no significant difference in the frequency or severity of adverse experiences between ENGERIX-B and plasma-derived vaccines.
In 36 clinical studies, a total of 13,495 doses of ENGERIX-B were administered to 5,071 healthy adults and children who were initially seronegative for hepatitis B markers, and healthy neonates. All subjects were monitored for 4 days post-administration.

 

 
Recombivax HB (Hep B) Merck:

 

This vaccine was not evaluated for safety using a control group.

In three clinical studies, 434 doses of RECOMBIVAX HB, 5 mcg, were administered to 147 healthy infants and children (up to 10 years of age) who were monitored for 5 days after each dose.
In a study that compared the three-dose regimen (5 mcg) with the two-dose regimen (10 mcg) of RECOMBIVAX HB in adolescents, the overall frequency of adverse reactions was generally similar.
In a group of studies, 3258 doses of RECOMBIVAX HB, 10 mcg, were administered to 1252 healthy adults who were monitored for 5 days after each dose.

 

     

    • At no point was Hepatitis B evaluated at birth, to see what effect it would have on either liver enzymes, or immune system parameters.

    In 1982, the C.D.C., the F.D.A., and the manufacturer created a surveillance system to monitor spontaneous reports of adverse events occurring after inoculation with the new-plasma derived hepatitis B vaccine (Heptavax-B, Merck Sharp and Dohme, West Point, PA). In the three years between June 1, 1982 and May 31, 1985, an estimated 850,000 persons received the vaccine. During that period, a total of 41 reports were received for one of the following neurologic adverse events: convulsions (5 cases), Bell’s palsy (10 cases), Guillain-Barre syndrome (9 cases), lumbar radiculopathy (5 cases), brachial plexus neuropathy (3 cases), optic neuritis (5 cases), and transverse myelitis (4 cases).  Half of these occurred after the first of three required vaccine doses. In some analyses, Gullain-Barre syndrome was reported significantly more often that expected (p=<0.05). Shaw FE, Jr., Graham DJ, Guess HA, Milstien JB et. al.   Postmarketing surveillance for neurologic adverse events reported after hepatitis B vaccination. Experience of the first three years   Am J Epidemiol 1988 (Feb);   127 (2):   337-352

     When Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) Fuels Confusion: Multiple Sclerosis after Hepatitis B Vaccine as a Case in Point.M. Girard/Medical Veritas 4 (2007) 1436-1451.

    •  

         

        One of the major side effects of the Hepatitis B vaccine in the kids ‘catch-up campaign’ is “bronchospasm” and kids who have asthma are nearly always guaranteed to have a serious asthma attack on the day of their shot.  

      RHEUMATIC DISORDERS DEVELOPED AFTER HEPATITIS B VACCINATION
      Aim
      : to obtain an overview of rheumatic disorders occurring after hepatitis B vaccination.

      Conclusion: hepatitis B vaccination might be followed by various rheumatic conditions, and might trigger the onset of underlying inflammatory and/or auto-immune rheumatic diseases. However, a causal relation between hepatitis B vaccination and the observed rheumatic manifestations cannot be easily established. Further epidemiological works are needed to establish whether hepatitis B vaccination is associated or not with an incidence of rheumatic disorders higher than normal.

      Other Studies:

      Several papers have been published linking immunization to lupus and other rheumatoid diseases. A study of lupus patients receiving polio vaccines showed 5% had a flare following immunization (Schattner et al., 1992). Several papers have reported patients with lupus developing deterioration in kidney function following immunization (Ristow et al., 1978); (Louie et al., 1978). Lupus has been reported to occur following immunization with the Hepatitis B (Tudela et al., 1992), and pneumococcal (Ries & Shemonsky, 1981) vaccines. Immunization with the influenza vaccine has been associated with a rise in anti-double stranded DNA antibodies, an marker for lupus (Huang et al., 1992). Rheumatoid arthritis has been observed to occur following immunization with Hepatitis B vaccine (Vautier & Carty, 1994). Rheumatoid factor, auto antibodies that bind other antibodies, have been reported to develop following vaccination (Aho et al., 1962); (Aho et al., 1967); (Palit et al., 1977); (Welch et al., 1982).

       The Genetic Centers of America, MedCon, Inc., Silver Spring, Maryland 20905, USA.

       OBJECTIVES: Adverse events and positive re-challenge of symptoms reported in the scientific literature and to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) following hepatitis B vaccination (HBV) were examined.

       

       

       

      METHODS: The VAERS and PubMed (1966-2003) were searched for autoimmune conditions including arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, myelitis, optic neuritis, multiple sclerosis (MS), Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS), glomerulonephritis, pancytopenia/thrombocytopenia, fatigue, and chronic fatigue, and Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE) following HBV.  

       

      RESULTS: HBV was associated with a number of serious conditions and positive re-challenge or significant exacerbation of symptoms following immunization. There were 415 arthritis, 166 rheumatoid arthritis, 130 myelitis, 4 SLE, 100 optic neuritis, 101 GBS,
      29 glomerulonephritis, 283 pancytopenia/thrombocytopenia, and 183 MS events reported following HBV A total of 465 positive re-challenge adverse events were observed following adult
      HBV that occurred sooner and with more severity than initial adverse event reports. A case-report of arthritis occurring in identical twins was also identified.

      CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from biological plausibility, case-reports, case-series, epidemiological, and now for positive re-challenge and exacerbation of symptoms, and events in identical twins was presented. One would have to consider that there is causal relationship between HBV and serious autoimmune disorders among certain susceptible vaccine recipients in a defined temporal period following immunization. In immunizing adults, the patient, with the help of their physician, should make an informed consent decision as to whether to be immunized or not, weighing the small risks of the adverse effects of HBV with the risk of exposure to deadly hepatitis B virus. (NEUROLOGY 2004; 63:838-842 American Academy of Neurology,   Miguel A. Hernán, MD et al)

      • Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine and the risk of multiple sclerosis-A prospective study.
        Miguel A. Hernán, MD et al.

         

        • Conclusions: These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that immunization with the recombinant hepatitis B vaccine is associated with an increased risk of MS, and challenge the idea that the relation between hepatitis B vaccination and risk of MS is well understood.
         

         

         

      Celiacs less likely to gain immunity from Hep B:  

      A total of 23 subjects were reviewed. All had a clinical and pathological diagnosis of celiac disease. All subjects reported receiving the full series of hepatitis B vaccinations. Of the subjects, 19 had testing for hepatitis B vaccine response. Of these 19 subjects, 13 did not achieve long-term immunity as seen by the negative qualitative or quantitative anti-HBs antibody titer.

      Hepatitis B Study:

      Conclusions: Anti-HBs disappeared by 5 years of age in most children who were vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine from birth. Although most children showed immunologic memory, one-third failed to demonstrate an anamnestic response to a booster dose. Additional long term studies of low risk infants are needed to determine duration of protection and the necessity for or timing of booster doses.

      HEPATITIS B VACCINE: The first hepatitis B virus vaccines developed in the 1970s were made using virus isolated from the blood of human chronic hepatitis B carriers. A plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine was licensed by the U.S. in 1981 and used in high-risk populations in the 1980s until a genetically engineered, recombinant hepatitis B vaccine was developed. Today, hepatitis B recombinant vaccine used in the U.S. is derived from hepatitis B surface antigens produced in yeast cells. A portion of the hepatitis B virus gene is cloned into the yeast (a common baker’s yeast) and the vaccine is produced from cultures of this recombinant yeast strain. The vaccine is treated with formaldehyde and contains 95 percent hepatitis B virus surface antigen, 4 percent yeast protein, aluminum hydroxide and thimerosal added as a preservative.” (source: The Consumer’s Guide to Childhood Vaccines by Barbara Loe Fisher).