Emergence of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes

Emergence of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes 19A, 6C, and 22F and Serogroup 15 in Cleveland, Ohio, in Relation to Introduction of the Protein-Conjugated Pneumococcal Vaccine

Clinical Infectious Diseases 2008;47:1388–1395    2008

Background.  A 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in 2000.

Methods.  We determined serotypes and assessed antimicrobial susceptibility of 1235 invasive and noninvasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from children and adults at University Hospitals Case Medical Center (Cleveland, OH) during the period 1999–2007.

Results.  The annual number of cases of S. pneumoniae infection decreased from 218 in 2000 to 86–130 during the period 2002–2007, with the number of cases involving invasive strains decreasing from 96 to 18–35. For 1999 versus 2005–2007, the annual incidence of vaccine serotypes decreased by 92% (95% confidence interval [CI], −96.3% to −87.0%), whereas that of vaccine-related and nonvaccine serotypes increased 207.4% (95% CI, 135.0%–297.7%) and 18.4% (95% CI, −10.0% to 52.3%), respectively. Serotypes 19A, 6C, and 22F and serogroup 15 accounted for most of these increases. For the period 2005–2007, antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that ceftriaxone was the most active parenteral β-lactam for both meningeal and nonmeningeal infections (72% and 88% of isolates, respectively, were susceptible to this agent); only 52% were susceptible to penicillin G at the meningeal breakpoint, whereas 77% were susceptible at the new nonmeningeal breakpoint of 2 μg/mL. Amoxicillin was the most active oral β-lactam (72% of isolates were susceptible), whereas 53% of isolates were susceptible to azithromycin, 69% to clindamycin, 63% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and 100% to levofloxacin.

Conclusions.  This study documents decreases in the incidence of infections involving vaccine serotypes, increases in infections involving other serotypes, and decreases in the activity of macrolides and clindamycin after conjugate vaccine introduction.

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