Encephalitis and Encephalopathy (part 1)

Encephalitis

headVaccines containing Pertussis and Measles can cause encephalitis. Per the VICP guidelines; onset of encephalitis from Pertussis-containing vaccines is 24-48 hours, and between day five and fifteen for the MMR, M, MR and R vaccines.  
 
 
This is what the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program stated in the late 1980’s: 
 
The neurologic signs and symptoms of encephalopathy may be temporary with complete recovery or may result in various degrees of permanent impairment.  
 
Signs and symptoms such as high-pitched and unusual screaming, persistent inconsolable crying, and bulging fontanel are compatible with an encephalopathy, but in and of themselves are not conclusive evidence of encephalopathy. Encephalopathy usually can be documented by slow wave activity on an electroencephalogram. 
 
Today it states: 
 
The following clinical features alone, or in combination, do not demonstrate an acute encephalopathy or a significant change in either mental status or level of consciousness as described above: Sleepiness, irritability (fussiness), high-pitched and unusual screaming, persistent inconsolable crying, and bulging fontanelle. Seizures in themselves are not sufficient to constitute a diagnosis of encephalopathy. In the absence of other evidence of an acute encephalopathy, seizures shall not be viewed as the first symptom or manifestation of the onset of an acute encephalopathy.  

 

 

*This means it is no longer considered a contradiction to further vaccination.
 

An adverse reaction association does have a name and it is called: Crying Syndrome or Screaming Syndrome.  The scream is also known as cry-encephalitis. The cause is infection of the brain from the vaccine virus/bacteria. When the body is injected with virus/bacteria it can travel to the brain and cause encephalitis. Encephalitis can be a reaction to any vaccine but the DTP and DTaP is the most common.
 

What is interesting to note is that when encephalitis occurs following an illness, a doctor will treat it correctly. However, following a vaccination, a doctor will tell you it is a normal reaction to the vaccine and do nothing.

 

Workshop on neurologic complications of pertussis and pertussis vaccination
  

A multidisciplinary workshop held from September 29 to October 1, 1989, at Airlie House, Warrenton, Virginia, considered the neurologic complications of whooping cough and pertussis vaccine. Pertussis mortality in the U.S. in 2-3/1000 cases. Seizures occur in 1.9% of cases, and encephalopathy in 0.3%. Reviewing all data, it appears likely that a combination of one or more bacterial toxins, asphyxia, CO2 retention and loss of cerebral vascular autoregulation is responsible for neurologic symptoms. The timing of the encephalopathy suggests that it results from increased lysis of bacteria, and release of endotoxin. The encephalopathy is not confined to the paroxysmal phase. In evaluating side-reactions to the vaccine, the following must be kept in mind: 1. Vaccines are not standardized between manufacturers. 2. For a given manufacturer, vaccines are not standard from one batch to the next. 3. Unless the vaccine is properly prepared and refrigerated, its potency and reactivity varies with shelf life. In fact, the whole question of vaccine detoxification has never been systematically investigated. Listed in order of increasing severity, observed adverse reactions include irritability, persistent, unusually high pitched crying, somnolence, seizures, a shock-like “hypotensive, hyporesponsive” state, and an encephalopathy. Since the neurologic picture is not specific for pertussis vaccination, its temporal relationship to the vaccination is the critical variable for determining causation. Although the majority of seizures following pertussis vaccination are associated with fever, it was the consensus of the neurologists attending the workshop, that these do not represent febrile convulsions, but are non-benign convulsions. The incidence of post-vaccine encephalopathy is difficult to ascertain.

 

 Basically, the screaming is caused by the pain of the endotoxin in the vaccine getting into his brain. The screaming then causes a release of cortisol through the body which disrupts the immune system. It also causes the body temperature to rise. The intestines ph or acidity of changes, and bacteria called e-coli increases. If the amount gets high, that is when it can cause problems. The DTP is known to slow the function of the liver but it is not known which babies will be affected. Therefore, it becomes important to neutralize the curlin and take strain off the liver.

 

According to Drugs.com:

 

Diphtheria / Tetanus Toxoids / Acellular Pertussis Vaccine

( DTaP/Tdap ) Pronouncation: (diff-THEER-ee-uh/TET-ah-nus/ay-SELL-yoo-ler per-TUSS-uss vaccine) Class: Toxoid

 

Trade Names: 
Adacel(Tdap)

Active booster immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis as a single dose in persons 11 to 64 yr of age.
– Injection 2 Lf units diphtheria toxoid, 5 Lf units tetanus toxoid, 3 mcg pertactin, 5 mcg filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), 2.5 mcg detoxified pertussis toxins, 5 mcg fimbriae types 2 and 3 per mL.

 
Boostrix(Tdap)

Active booster immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis as a single dose in persons 10 to 18 yr of age.
– Injection 2.5 Lf units diphtheria toxoid, 5 Lf units tetanus toxoid, 2.5 mcg pertactin, 8 mcg FHA, 8 mcg inactivated pertussis toxins per 0.5 mL
Daptacel
– Injection 15 Lf units diphtheria toxoid, 5 Lf units tetanus toxoid, 10 mcg pertussis toxoid, 5 mcg FHA, 3 mcg pertactin, 5 mcg fimbriae types 2 and 3 per 0.5 mL

 

Infanrix
– Injection 25 Lf units diphtheria, 10 Lf units tetanus toxoid, 25 mcg pertussis toxin, 25 mcg FHA, 8 mcg pertactin per 0.5 mL

 

Tripedia
– Injection 6.7 Lf units diphtheria toxoid, 5 Lf units tetanus toxoid, 46.8 mcg pertussis antigens (approximately 23.4 mcg each of inactivated pertussis toxin and FHA) per 0.5 mL

Daptacel , Infanrix , Tripedia (DTaP)

Active immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis in infants and children 6 wk to 6 yr of age (prior to seventh birthday).

 

Per CDC, Tdap is for use in adults and children 10 yr of age and older, and DTaP is for use in infants and children younger than 7 yr of age.

Contraindications

Encephalopathy within 7 days of previous administration of DTP, Tdap, or DTaP that is not attributable to another cause; progressive neurologic disorders (eg, infantile spasms, uncontrolled epilepsy, progressive encephalopathy), in addition, pertussis vaccine should not be administered to persons with these conditions until a treatment regimen has been established and condition has stabilized; hypersensitivity to any component of the vaccine; history of serious allergic reaction temporarily associated with a previous dose of vaccine or any component of the vaccine.

 

Daptacel , Infanrix , Tripedia

Use in adults or children 7 yr of age and older; if contraindication to pertussis vaccine component occurs, substitute diphtheria and tetanus toxoids for pediatric use (DT) for each remaining dose; defer elective immunization procedures during outbreak of poliomyelitis because of risk of provoking paralysis.

 

It is recommended that the same brand of DTaP ( Daptacel , Infanrix , Tripedia ) be given for all doses in the immunization series because no data exist on the interchangeability of DTaP vaccines. Tdap vaccines ( Adacel , Boostrix ) are not interchangeable with DTaP vaccines.

 

 

Anticoagulants

Give DTaP/Tdap with caution to patients on anticoagulant therapy.

 

Immunosuppressants

May reduce vaccine’s efficacy.

 Influenza vaccine

To attribute causality of adverse reactions, do not give influenza vaccine within 3 days of pertussis vaccination.

Laboratory Test Interactions

None well documented.

 

Adverse Reactions

Cardiovascular

Boostrix

Myocarditis (postmarketing).

Daptacel

Cyanosis (postmarketing).

Infanrix

Cyanosis (postmarketing).

CNS

Adacel

Headache (44%); tiredness (30%); hyposthesia, paresthesia, vasovagal syncope (postmarketing).

 

Boostrix

Headache (43%); fatigue (37%); convulsion, encephalitis, facial palsy, paresthesia (postmarketing).

 

Daptacel

Fussines (76%); fretfulness (40%); drowsiness (33%); anorexia (11%); convulsions, febrile convulsion, grand mal convulsion, hypotonia, hypotonic-hyporesponsive episode, partial seizures, somnolence, screaming (postmarketing).

 

Infanrix

Drowsiness (38%); anorexia (12%); fussiness (9%); convulsions, crying, encephalopathy, hypotonia, hypotonic-hyporesponsive episode, irritability, somnolence (postmarketing).

 

Tripedia

Drowsiness (29%); irritability (25%); anorexia (10%); fussiness (6%); autism, convulsion, encephalopathy, grand mal convulsion, hypotonia, neuropathy, somnolence (postmarketing).

Dermatologic

Adacel

Rash (3%); pruritus, urticaria (postmarketing).

 

Boostrix

Exanthem, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, rash (postmarketing).

 Infanrix

Erythema, pruritus, rash, urticaria (postmarketing).

GI

Adacel

Nausea (13%); diarrhea (10%); vomiting (5%).

 Boostrix

GI symptoms including abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting (26%).

 Daptacel

Vomiting (7%); diarrhea, nausea (postmarketing).

 Infanrix

Vomiting (7%); diarrhea, intussusception (postmarketing).

 Tripedia

Vomiting (5%).

Hematologic-Lymphatic

Adacel

Lymph node swelling (7%).

 

Boostrix

Lymphadenitis, lymphadenopathy (postmarketing).

 

Infanrix

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, lymphadenopathy, thrombocytopenia (postmarketing).

 

Tripedia

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (postmarketing).

Hypersensitivity

Boostrix

Anaphylactic reaction, arthus-type hypersensitivity.

 

Daptacel

Allergic reaction, anaphylactic reaction (edema, face edema, face swelling, generalized rash and other types of rash, pruritus), hypersensitivity (postmarketing).

 

Infanrix

Anaphylactic reaction, hypersensitivity (postmarketing).

 

Tripedia

Anaphylactic reaction (postmarketing).

Local

Adacel

Pain (78%); erythema (25%); swelling (21%); injection-site bruising, sterile abscess

(postmarketing).

 

Boostrix

Pain (75%); redness (48%); swelling (39%); increase in arm circumference (28%); induration, inflammation, local reaction, mass, nodule, warmth (postmarketing).

 

Daptacel

Tenderness (50%); increased arm circumference (30%); redness (17%); swelling (12%); cellulitis, injection-site abscess, injection-site mass, injection-site nodule, injection-site pain, injection-site rash.

 

Infanrix

Redness (59%); swelling (50%); pain (27%); injection-site reactions (postmarketing).

 

Tripedia

Redness (33%); swelling (28%); pain (21%).

Musculoskeletal

Adacel

Body ache or muscle weakness (30%); sore and swollen joints (11%); muscle spasms, myelitis, myositis (postmarketing).

 

Boostrix

Arthralgia, back pain, myalgia (postmarketing).

 

Infanrix

Limb swelling (postmarketing).

Miscellaneous

Adacel

Chills (15%); fever (5%).

 

Boostrix

Fever (14%); insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (postmarketing).

 

Daptacel

Crying (59%); decreased activity (51%); fever (24%).

 

Infanrix

Fever (7%); cellulitis, ear pain, respiratory tract infection, sudden infant death syndrome (postmarketing).

 

Tripedia

Fever (25%); apnea, sudden infant death syndrome (postmarketing).

 

Pregnancy

Category C .

Lactation

Undetermined.

Children

Adacel

Safety and efficacy not established in children younger than 11 yr of age.

 Boostrix

Not indicated for use in patients younger than 10 yr of age or older than 18 yr of age.

 

Daptacel , Infanrix , Tripedia

Safety and efficacy in infants younger than 6 wk of age not established; contraindicated for persons 7 yr of age and older.

Elderly

Adacel

Safety and efficacy not established in individuals 65 yr of age and older.

Special Risk Patients

If any of the following occurs in temporal relation with receipt of either whole-cell pertussis DTP or DTaP, carefully consider decision to administer subsequent doses of vaccine containing pertussis component: temperature of at least 105°F within 48 h not caused by another identifiable cause; collapse or shock-like state (hypotonic-hyporesponsive episode) within 48 h; persistent inconsolable crying lasting at least 3 h occurring within 48 h; or convulsions, with or without fever, occurring within 3 days. If the decision is made to withhold pertussis component, continue immunization with DT (Td if 7 yr of age and older). If Guillain-Barré syndrome occurs within 6 wk of receipt of prior vaccine containing tetanus toxoids, base decision to give subsequent doses of DTaP or any vaccine containing tetanus toxoids on potential benefits versus risks. Patients who experience serious Arthus-type hypersensitivity reactions following a prior dose of tetanus toxoids usually have high serum tetanus antitoxin levels and should not be given Td or DTaP vaccines or even emergency doses of Td more frequently than every 10 yr, even if wound is neither clean nor minor.

Bleeding disorders

Use with caution in patients with bleeding disorders (eg, thrombocytopenia, hemophilia) or receiving anticoagulant therapy.

Convulsions/CNS disorders

Family history of seizures or other CNS disorders is not a contraindication to pertussis vaccine.

Febrile illness or acute infection

Defer immunization during course of illness. Minor respiratory illness, such as mild upper respiratory tract infection, is usually not a reason to defer immunization.

Immunodeficiency

May have diminished antibody response; defer immunization, if possible, until immunocompetency is restored.

Latex sensitivity

Stoppers for Daptacel and Tripedia vials, and tip cap and rubber plunger of Infanrix and Boostrix needleless prefilled syringes contain dry natural latex rubber that may cause allergic reactions in latex-sensitive individuals.

 

Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine

Brand Names: M-M-R II

 

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before receiving this vaccine?

You should not receive this vaccine if you are allergic to:

  • eggs;
  • gelatin;
  • neomycin (Mycifradin, Neo-Fradin, Neo-Tab); or
  • if you have ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction to any vaccine containing measles, mumps, or rubella.
  •  

You should also not receive this vaccine if you have:

  • a chronic disease such as asthma or other breathing disorder, diabetes, kidney disease, or blood cell disorders such as anemia;
  • severe immune suppression caused by disease (such as cancer, HIV, or AIDS), or by receiving certain medicines such as steroids, chemotherapy or radiation; or
  • if you are pregnant.
  •  

Before receiving this vaccine, tell the doctor if you have:

  • thrombocytopenia purpura (easy bruising or bleeding);
  • active tuberculosis infection;
  • a history of seizures;
  • a neurologic disorder or disease affecting the brain (or if this was a reaction to a previous vaccine);
  • a weak immune system caused by disease, bone marrow transplant, or by using certain medicines or receiving cancer treatments;
  • if you have received an immune globulin or other blood product within the past year; or
  • if you have received a previous MMR vaccine within the past 28 days (4 weeks).
  •  

You can still receive a vaccine if you have a cold or fever. In the case of a more severe illness with a fever or any type of infection, wait until you get better before receiving this vaccine.

You should not receive a measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine if you are pregnant. Wait until after your child is born to receive the vaccine.

Avoid becoming pregnant for at least 3 months after receiving a measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine.

Do no not receive this vaccine without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

What should I avoid before or after receiving this vaccine?

Do not receive another “live” vaccine such as oral polio, yellow fever, or varicella (chickenpox) for at least 4 weeks after you have received the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. The other live vaccine may not work as well during this time, and may not fully protect you from disease.

Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines side effects

You should not receive a booster vaccine if you had a life-threatening allergic reaction after the first shot. Keep track of any and all side effects you have after receiving this vaccine. When you receive a booster dose, you will need to tell the doctor if the previous shots caused any side effects.

Becoming infected with measles, mumps, or rubella is much more dangerous to your health than receiving the vaccine to protect against these diseases. Like any medicine, this vaccine can cause side effects, but the risk of serious side effects is extremely low.

 

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:

  • problems with hearing or vision;
  • extreme drowsiness, fainting;
  • easy bruising or bleeding, unusual weakness;
  • seizure (black-out or convulsions); or
  • high fever (within a few hours or a few days after the vaccine).
  •  

Less serious side effects include:

  • redness, pain, swelling, or a lump where the shot was given;
  • headache, dizziness;
  • low fever;
  • joint or muscle pain; or
  • nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
  •  

Side effects other than those listed here may also occur. Contact your doctor about any side effect that seems unusual or that is especially bothersome.

What other drugs will affect measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine?

Before receiving this vaccine, tell the doctor about all other vaccines you have recently received.

Also tell the doctor if you have recently received drugs or treatments that can weaken the immune system, including:

  • an oral, nasal, inhaled, or injectable steroid medicine;
  • medications to treat psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, or other autoimmune disorders, such as azathioprine (Imuran), efalizumab (Raptiva), etanercept (Enbrel), leflunomide (Arava), and others; or
  • medicines to treat or prevent organ transplant rejection, such as basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Sandimmune, Neoral, Gengraf), muromonab-CD3 (Orthoclone), mycophenolate mofetil (CellCept), sirolimus (Rapamune), or tacrolimus (Prograf).
  •  

If you are using any of these medications, you may not be able to receive the vaccine, or may need to wait until the other treatments are finished.

There may be other drugs that can affect this vaccine. Tell your doctor about all the prescription and over-the-counter medications you have received. This includes vitamins, minerals, herbal products, and drugs prescribed by other doctors. Do not start using a new medication without telling your doctor.

 

ProQuad -Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella Vaccine

Do NOT use ProQuad if:

  • you are allergic to any ingredient in ProQuad , including gelatin
  • you have had a severe allergic reaction (eg, severe rash, hives, difficulty breathing, dizziness) to neomycin
  • you have a weakened immune system (eg, advanced HIV, AIDS, decreased gamma globulin levels, decreased white blood cell levels), blood problems, cancer affecting the blood or bone marrow (eg, leukemia), fever, or active or untreated tuberculosis (TB)
  • you are pregnant
  • you are taking an immunosuppressant (eg, cyclosporine) or a salicylate (eg, aspirin)

Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Before using ProQuad :

Some medical conditions may interact with ProQuad . Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

  • if you are planning to become pregnant or are breast-feeding
  • if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement
  • if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances
  • if you are allergic to eggs
  • if you have an infection, a tumor, HIV, low blood platelet levels, a history of seizures or head injury, or a family history of seizures or immune system weakness
  • if you have had a recent blood or plasma transfusion or have received immune globulin or a tuberculin test
  • if you have been exposed to measles, mumps, rubella, or chickenpox
  • if you have a history of tuberculosis

Some MEDICINES MAY INTERACT with ProQuad . Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

  • Corticosteroids (eg, prednisone) or immunosuppressants (eg, cyclosporine) because the effectiveness of ProQuad may be decreased
  • Salicylates (eg, aspirin) because the risk of side effects may be increased

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if ProQuad may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

  • ProQuad may cause drowsiness or dizziness. Do not drive, operate machinery, or do anything else that could be dangerous until you know how you react to ProQuad . Using ProQuad alone, with certain other medicines, or with alcohol may lessen your ability to drive or perform other potentially dangerous tasks.
  • This medicine may decrease the effectiveness of tuberculin tests. If you are scheduled to have a tuberculin test within 6 weeks after receiving this vaccination, contact your doctor. You may need to reschedule your tuberculin test.
  • Avoid contact with individuals with weakened immune systems, pregnant women who have not had chickenpox, and newborns whose mothers have not had chickenpox for 6 weeks after receiving this vaccination.
  • Avoid use of salicylates (eg, aspirin) for 6 weeks after receiving this vaccination.
  • Keep written documentation of all vaccinations received to help avoid unnecessary doses. Be sure that your doctor knows the dates that you have received other vaccinations.
  • This vaccine may not guarantee protection against measles, mumps, rubella, or chickenpox. Discuss any questions or concerns with your doctor.
  • Adult women may experience joint pain 2 to 4 weeks after receiving this injection. This usually lasts only a short time. However, these symptoms have persisted for months or, rarely, years.
  • ProQuad contains albumin, which comes from human blood. There is an extremely rare risk of developing a viral disease, or a central nervous system disease called Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. No cases of viral diseases or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease from albumin have been identified.
  • Use ProQuad with extreme caution in CHILDREN younger than 12 months of age. Safety and effectiveness in this age group have not been confirmed.
  • PREGNANCY and BREAST-FEEDING: Do not use ProQuad if you are pregnant. If you suspect that you could be pregnant, contact your doctor immediately. After receiving ProQuad , do not become pregnant for at least 3 months without checking with your doctor. It is unknown if ProQuad is excreted in breast milk. Do not breast-feed while using ProQuad .

Possible side effects of ProQuad :

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects. Check with your doctor if any of these most COMMON side effects persist or become bothersome:

Diarrhea; dizziness; fever; general unwell feeling; headache; irritability; mild rash; muscle or joint ache or pain; nausea; pain, tenderness, soreness, or swelling at the injection site; tiredness; vomiting.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these SEVERE side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); fainting; loss of coordination; mental or mood changes; numbness or tingling in the fingers or toes; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin; seizures; unusual bruising or bleeding; vision or hearing changes.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions or need medical advice about side effects, contact your doctor or health care provider. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 (1-800-332-1088) or at http://www.fda.gov/medwatch.

 

Encephalitis and Encephalopathy

 

 

Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain. The inflammation is caused either by an infection invading the brain (infectious); or through the immune system attacking the brain in error (post-infectious / autoimmune encephalitis).

Encephalitis is different from meningitis. Meningitis means inflammation of the protective layers that cover the brain. Sometimes patients have both meningitis and encephalitis and this is called meningoencephalitis.

 

Encephalopathy is a term for any diffuse disease of the brain that alters brain function or structure. Encephalopathy may be caused by infectious agent (bacteria, virus, or prion), metabolic or mitochondrial dysfunction, brain tumor or increased pressure in the skull, prolonged exposure to toxic elements (including solvents, drugs, radiation, paints, industrial chemicals, and certain metals), chronic progressive trauma, poor nutrition, or lack of oxygen or blood flow to the brain. The hallmark of encephalopathy is an altered mental state. Depending on the type and severity of encephalopathy, common neurological symptoms are progressive loss of memory and cognitive ability, subtle personality changes, inability to concentrate, lethargy, and progressive loss of consciousness. Other neurological symptoms may include myoclonus (involuntary twitching of a muscle or group of muscles), nystagmus (rapid, involuntary eye movement), tremor, muscle atrophy and weakness, dementia, seizures, and loss of ability to swallow or speak. Blood tests, spinal fluid examination, imaging studies, electroencephalograms, and similar diagnostic studies may be used to differentiate the various causes of encephalopathy.

 

 

  Pertussis vaccination and epilepsy–an erratic history, new research and the mismatch between science and social policy.

 

For over 50 years, concerns have been raised about the risk of pertussis vaccine-induced childhood encephalopathy and epilepsy. This article reviews the scientific literature, and the social and historical context in which the scientific, public health and societal views have not always been aligned. Large-scale studies of this issue have produced conflicting results, although the recent consensus is that the risk of vaccine-induced encephalopathy and/or epilepsy, if it exists at all, is extremely low. Risk estimates in the literature have included: risk of a febrile seizure 1 per 19,496 vaccinations; risk of an afebrile seizure 1 per 76,133 vaccinations; risk of encephalopathy after pertussis infection nil-3 cases per million vaccinations. A recent study showed that encephalopathy in 11 out of the 14 children studied, although previously attributed to vaccination, was in fact due an inherited genetic defect of the SCNIA gene that codes for the voltage gated neuronal sodium channel. This study is important because it provides a solid alternative explanation for the perceived pertussis vaccine-encephalopathy association. The interesting possibility is raised that the encephalopathy apparently due to pertussis itself may, in some cases, be due to an SCNIA mutation. It may also, by analogy, shed some light on the continuing debate about other serious long-term adverse effects of vaccination in general.

 

 To be continued…the autism connection, post-vaccinal encephalomyelitis, the rise in neurological disorders…

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