Mumps

Mumps

 

 Jeryl Lynn strain:

 

There are more than ten mumps vaccine strains have been used throughout the world, such as Jeryl Lynn, Urabe, Hoshino, Rubini, Leningrad-3, L-Zagreb, Miyahara, Torii, NK M-46, S-12 and RIT 4385. In Japan and Europe, some manufacturers produce a live mumps vaccine containing the Urabe Am9 virus strain. Due to concerns about vaccine-associated meningitis, several countries stopped using Urabe vaccine strain (WER 1992). Some vaccines have a more limited distribution. The mumps vaccines are cultured in various ways. The viruses can be cultured in chick embryo fibroblasts, such as the Jeryl Lynn and Urabe strain containing vaccines, or quail and human embryo fibroblasts are also used for some vaccines.

 

Vaccines:

  

MUMPSVAX® (MUMPS VIRUS VACCINE LIVE)

JERYL LYNN™ STRAIN 

Package Insert

 

M-M-R® II (MEASLES, MUMPS, and RUBELLA VIRUS VACCINE LIVE)

Jeryl Lynn** (B level) strain

Package insert

 

ProQuad® Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella Virus Vaccine Live

MMRV(Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Varicella) 

Has been suspended.

 

ProQuad* is a combined attenuated live virus vaccine containing measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella viruses. ProQuad is a sterile lyophilized preparation of (1) the components of M-M-R*II (Measles, Mumps and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live): Measles Virus Vaccine Live, a more attenuated line of measles virus, derived from Enders’ attenuated Edmonston strain and propagated in chick embryo cell culture; Mumps Virus Vaccine Live, the Jeryl Lynn™ (B level) strain of mumps virus propagated in chick embryo

cell culture; Rubella Virus Vaccine Live, the Wistar RA 27/3 strain of live attenuated rubella virus propagated in WI-38 human diploid lung fibroblasts; and (2) Varicella Virus Vaccine Live (Oka/Merck), the Oka/Merck strain of varicella-zoster virus propagated in MRC-5 cells. The cells, virus pools, bovine serum, and human albumin used in manufacturing are all tested to provide assurance that the final product is free of potential adventitious agents.

ProQuad, when reconstituted as directed, is a sterile preparation for subcutaneous administration.

Each 0.5-mL dose contains not less than 3.00 log10 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infectious dose) of measles virus; 4.30 log10 TCID50 of mumps virus; 3.00 log10 TCID50 of rubella virus; and a minimum of 3.99 log10 PFU (plaque-forming units) of Oka/Merck varicella virus.

 

 WHO Position paper on Mumps vaccines

Feb 2007: Mumps vaccines; studies on immune responses, efficacy and effectiveness

 

Mumps virus strains used for vaccine

At least 10 strains of the mumps virus are in use throughout the world for live attenuated vaccine. The first vaccine strain to be developed, and that most often used, is the Jeryl Lynn strain which was named after the child from whom the virus was isolated. It was developed in the USA by passaging seven times in embryonated hen’s eggs and ten times in chick embryo cell cultures. At the initial level of attenuation, lower than that used in the final vaccine, the Jeryl Lynn strain produced parotid swelling in some vaccinees what was the indicating that the vaccine strain was not suffficiently attenuated. This parotid swelling was not seen after additional passages at the B level of attenuation. Since December 1967, a live attenuated Jeryl Lynn vaccine has been manufactured and distributed by an American company…

In the USSR in the 1950s, the Leningrad-3 strain was developed by Smrodintsev and Klyachko in guinea pig kidney cell culture, with further passages in Japanese quail embryo cultures. Vaccines based on this strain have been used in the former Soviet Union and other countries.

Leningrad-3 mumps virus was further attenuated in Croatia by adaptation and passages on chick embryo fibroblast cell culture. The new mumps strain has been designated L-Zagreb. This strain is used in Croatia and India.

The Urabe strain of live mumps vaccine was first licensed in Japan and thereafter in Belgium, France, and Italy. It is produced either in the amnion of embryonated hen’s eggs or in chick-embryo cell cultures and has been used successfully in Japan and other countries. Its immunogenic properties are similar to those of the Jeryl Lynn strain.

The other strains are used to produce vaccines on a limited local scale. Hoshino, Torii and NKM – 46 strains are said to have characteristics similar to those of the Urabe strain. Mumps vaccine strains have been attenuated on different cell-culture systems and it was originally thought that they are were equally capable of inducing high levels of immunity. Recent observations, however, suggest that some vaccines based on the Rubini strain, approved in 1985 in Switzerland, have lower efficacy than those based on the Jeryl Lynn or Urabe strains. One possible explanation for a low protective efficacy of the Rubini strain may be the high number (> 30) of passages attained during its attenuation process. Vaccines prepared from various strains may differ in their capacity to cause adverse events; meningitis associated with MMR vaccine containing Urabe strains has led to the withdrawal of Urabe-containing vaccine from several countries.

A killed mumps virus vaccine that was licensed in the United States in 1948 and used from 1950 to 1978, found little acceptance because it induced only short-term immunity of low protective efficacy. Since then, live, attenuated mumps virus vaccines have been developed in Japan, the Russian Federation, Switzerland and the United States. The vaccines are scheduled for either one or two doses, the first given at 12–15 months of age and the second at 9–12 years of age. They are available as monovalent, bivalent measles-mumps (MM) vaccines and trivalent measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines. WHO requirements do not specify the minimum amount of vaccine virus that one human dose should contain. Rather, this is determined by the national control authority of the country where the vaccine is produced. Most of these vaccines contain more than 1000 cell-culture infective doses of attenuated mumps virus per dose…

The incidence of vaccine-associated cases of aseptic meningitis ranges from 0.1–1 per 100 000 doses of the Jeryl Lynn mumps vaccine.The Leningrad-3 vaccine strain developed in the former Soviet Union is propagated in guinea-pig kidney cell culture and further passaged in Japanese quail embryo culture…

Passive surveillance and retrospective reviews indicate an incidence of 20–100 cases of aseptic meningitis per 100 000 doses of MM vaccine based on the Leningrad-3 strain. The Leningrad-3 strain has been further attenuated in Croatia by adaptation to chick embryo fibroblast cell culture. The new strain designated L-Zagreb is used in Croatia,India and Slovenia. Studies of L-Zagreb in Croatia revealed protective properties equivalent to those seen with the Leningrad-3 strain and also the incidence of vaccine associated aseptic meningitis remained largely the same (2–90 per 100 000 doses of MMR). 

Live mumps vaccine based on the Urabe strain was first licensed in Japan and then in France, Belgium and Italy. The Urabe strain is produced either in the amnion of embryonated hens’ eggs or in chick embryo cell cultures…

A possible association of the Urabe strain with vaccine-induced meningitis has resulted in its withdrawal from some countries. Studies up to 1993 identified an incidence of approximately 100 cases of aseptic meningitis per 100 000 doses of MMR containing the Urabe mumps strain. However, the rates differed by manufacturer. 

The Rubini strain was first licensed in Switzerland in 1985. It was developed by passage in a human diploid cell line, serial passaging in embryonated hens’ eggs and then adapted to the MRC-5 human diploid cell line. Recent observations with the vaccine based on the Rubini strain suggest that this vaccine has lower efficacy than those based on the Jeryl Lynn or Urabe strains. A three-year study in Switzerland showed that the Rubini strain conferred only 6.3% protection whereas the Urabe and Jeryl Lynn based vaccines achieved 73.1% and 61.6% efficacy respectively.In another study the corresponding figures were 12.4%, 75.8% and 64.7%.

An explanation for these poor results may be the high number of passages (>30) resulting in an overly attenuated vaccine strain. Furthermore, the manufacturer of the Rubini strain vaccine now recommends a second dose at four to six years of age. Data on the protective efficacy of this schedule are currently not available. Attenuated mumps virus strains that are used on a limited scale only include the Hoshino, Torii and NKM-46 strains. They are reported to possess immunogenic properties similar to the Urabe strain.

An Evaluation of the Rubini, Urabe AM9, and Jeryl-Lynn Mumps Vaccines, Specifically Concerning Efficacy and Association with Aseptic Meningitis

Comparison of the Neurovirulence of a Vaccine and a Wild-Type Mumps Virus Strain in the Developing Rat Brain   Journal of Virology, October 1998, p. 8037-8042, Vol. 72, No. 10

 

The risk of aseptic meningitis associated with the Leningrad-Zagreb mumps vaccine strain following mass vaccination with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1997

Abstract

Background Few data are available on the risk of aseptic meningitis following vaccination with the Leningrad-Zagreb (L-Z) strain of mumps vaccine. In 1997 the mumps vaccine was introduced into the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil through mass vaccination with mumps-measles-rubella (MMR), targeting children aged 1–11 years. Five municipalities used exclusively MMR vaccine containing the L-Z strain of mumps. An outbreak of aseptic meningitis was observed shortly after the mass campaign.

Methods To estimate the risk of aseptic meningitis associated with this strain, we analysed vaccination and meningitis case surveillance data from the selected municipalities. A case of vaccine-associated aseptic meningitis was defined as one with a pleocytosis of 10–1500 leukocytes/ml and occurring within 15–35 days after vaccine receipt.

Results We estimated a risk of 2.9 cases per 10 000 doses of L-Z administered, equivalent to 1 case per 3390 doses administered. The overall risk of aseptic meningitis following the campaign was increased 12.2-fold (95% CI: 6.0–24.7) compared with the same period in 1995–1996. Following the mass campaign, the incidence of mumps declined 93% during 1998–2000.

Conclusions Vaccination with the L-Z strain of mumps vaccine as part of a mass campaign was associated with a significantly increased risk of aseptic meningitis. Decisions about type of mumps vaccine and mumps vaccination strategies must consider vaccine safety issues in addition to other criteria.

Autism Explosion Followed Big Change in MMR Shot


(By Dan Olmsted January 13, 2009)
 

 

 

In 1990, Merck & Co., manufacturer of the mumps-measles-rubella vaccine known as the MMR, made a significant but little-noticed change: It quadrupled the amount of mumps virus in the combination shot, from 5,000 to 20,000 units. Then in 2007 it reversed course, reducing the amount to 12,500 units. Neither the measles nor the rubella (German measles) component of the MMR was changed at all — each remained at 1,000 units throughout.
Merck also makes the single-component mumps shot, and in 1990 it also increased the potency of that shot by the same amount, from 5,000 to 20,000 units. But unlike the MMR shot, the standalone mumps shot’s potency was not scaled back in 2007. It remains at 20,000 units…

 

Killed Mumps Vaccine:

 

Mumps virus vaccine. (Calif Med. 1969 November; 111(5): 413–414.)

 

killedmumpsvaccine

 

 

 

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