ChickenPox/Shingles Strains

Identification of Five Major and Two Minor Genotypes of Varicella-Zoster Virus Strains: a Practical Two-Amplicon Approach Used To Genotype Clinical Isolates in Australia and New Zealand

 

Whole genome phylogenetic analysis in this study resolved a total of five major genotypes among the 22 varicella-zoster virus (VZV) strains or isolates for which complete genomic sequences are available.

cpstarins2

Acquiring one strain can result in immunity to all strains of the virus. In some cases, however, complete immunity is not attained and an individual can become re-infected.

Shingles, or herpes zoster, this is a later reactivation of latent virus. It can occur any time after the initial infection. Usually, it occurs years later, and is activated by stress or an unbalanced immune system.

Varicella Zoster Virus

VZV is a member of the herpes virus group or (alpha) herpes virus 3, and it is a DNA virus. VZV can persist as a latent infection in dorsal root or extra medullary cranial ganglia.

  

Toward Universal Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) Genotyping: Diversity of VZV Strains from France and Spain

 

…wild-type varicella-zoster virus (VZV) strains to seven genotypes: A1, A2, J1, B1, B2, C, and C1. VZV isolates identified as E (ORF22 method) had the genetic signature of genotype C VZV strains, M1 strains were A1, and M2 were A2. No J strains were detected, but parental Oka and vaccine Oka (genotype J) corresponded to genotype J1. M4 isolates (B) share the SNP array observed for M1 and E viruses, and probably represent recombinants between African-Asian (M1) and European (E) viruses. The two genotyping methods, using entirely different genomic targets, produced identical clusters for the strains examined, suggesting robust phylogenetic linkages among VZV strains circulating in Europe.

cpstarins

pOka is the parental Oka strain from which varicella vaccine was derived. Sequence positions are based on the published genomic sequence for the Dumas strain. Green cells indicate European genotype (E) markers; yellow cells are Japanese genotype (J) markers, rose cells are markers unique to various M genotype variants, and uncolored cells reflect markers that are consistent across genotypes. ND, not determined.

The Immunological Basis for Immunization Series    Module 10: Varicella

VZV is a member of the herpesvirus family. It has 71 genes, all of which are expressed in lytic infection and seven of which are expressed in latent infection (5). Only neurons support latent infection. There is one serotype, but several genotypes are known, with small differences in their DNAs, classified as European, Japanese, and Mosaic (6). Recently, 3% of VZV strains circulating in the United States of America have been identified as Japanese type (7).

VZV was successfully attenuated by Takahashi and colleagues in 1974, by serial passage of a clinical isolate from an otherwise healthy boy with chickenpox (13).

Attenuation was achieved by passage 11 times at 34ºC in human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELF), 12 passages at 37ºC in guinea-pig fibroblasts, and 5 to 6 passages in MRC -5 human fibroblasts at 37ºC. Infected cell suspensions were sonicated to obtain cell-free VZV.Standard safety-testing after injection into small mammals was also performed, and did not identify any adventitious agents.

Varicella vaccines contain a mixture of Oka and parental strains (14-16). Sequencing of the Dumas strain of wild-type VZV, and the Oka strain, has shown that there are 42 differing bases, over one third of which are in gene 62.Three fixed mutations have been identified in Oka strains present in skin rashes of vaccinees, all located in gene 62 (15,17,18). Although the genetic basis for attenuation is still unknown, it is possible to differentiate Oka from wild-type VZV by PCR in clinical specimens (8).

Monovalent varicella vaccine is produced in the United States (VarivaxTM; Merck & Co., Inc.), the Kingdom of Belgium (VarilrixTM; GlaxoSmithKline), and Japan (OKAVAX™; Biken, distributed by Aventis Pasteur). These vaccines vary slightly in passage number in human diploid cells, antibiotics for sterility, stabilizers and minor constituents. Each preparation guarantees 1350 plaque forming units (PFU) per 0.5 ml at expiration; doses at release vary from 3 000 to 17 000 PFU.

Combination vaccines for measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) are produced by Merck (ProQuadTM)and GSK (Priorix-TetraTM). MMRV vaccines are licensed for children 12 months to 12 years old. They contain the same measlesmumps-rubella (MMR) components as MMR vaccine, but have a higher concentration of Oka varicella vaccine (~ 10 000 PFU at expiration) than monovalent varicella vaccines.

A formulation of the Oka strain containing~ 17 000 PFU (ZostavaxTM), is used for prevention of zoster when administered to healthy adults above the age of 60 years.

VARIVAX® Varicella Virus Vaccine Live

 

VARIVAX* [Varicella Virus Vaccine Live] is a preparation of the Oka/Merck strain of live, attenuated varicella virus. The virus was initially obtained from a child with natural varicella, then introduced into human embryonic lung cell cultures, adapted to and propagated in embryonic guinea pig cell cultures and finally propagated in human diploid cell cultures (WI-38). Further passage of the virus for varicella vaccine was performed at Merck Research Laboratories (MRL) in human diploid cell cultures (MRC-5) that were free of adventitious agents. This live, attenuated varicella vaccine is a lyophilized preparation containing sucrose, phosphate, glutamate, and processed gelatin as stabilizers.

 

ZOSTAVAX® Zoster Vaccine Live

 

ZOSTAVAX is a lyophilized preparation of live, attenuated varicella-zoster virus (Oka/Merck) to be reconstituted with sterile diluent to give a single dose suspension with a minimum of 19,400 PFU (plaque forming units) when stored at room temperature for up to 30 minutes.

 

ProQuad® Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella Virus Vaccine Live

(no longer available until further notice)

 

ProQuad* is a combined attenuated live virus vaccine containing measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella viruses. ProQuad is a sterile lyophilized preparation of (1) the components of M-M-R*II (Measles, Mumps and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live): Measles Virus Vaccine Live, a more attenuated line of measles virus, derived from Enders’ attenuated Edmonston strain and propagated in chick embryo cell culture; Mumps Virus Vaccine Live, the Jeryl Lynn™ (B level) strain of mumps virus propagated in chick embryo cell culture; Rubella Virus Vaccine Live, the Wistar RA 27/3 strain of live attenuated rubella virus propagated in WI-38 human diploid lung fibroblasts; and (2) Varicella Virus Vaccine Live (Oka/Merck), the Oka/Merck strain of varicella-zoster virus propagated in MRC-5 cells. The cells, virus pools, bovine serum, and human albumin used in manufacturing are all tested to provide assurance that the final product is free of potential adventitious agents.

ProQuad, when reconstituted as directed, is a sterile preparation for subcutaneous administration. Each 0.5-mL dose contains not less than 3.00 log10 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infectious dose) of measles virus; 4.30 log10 TCID50 of mumps virus; 3.00 log10 TCID50 of rubella virus; and a minimum of 3.99 log10 PFU (plaque-forming units) of Oka/Merck varicella virus.

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Chicken Pox/Shingles/The Vaccines

Chickenpox is caused by the Varicella-Zoster virus. It is spread either by droplet infection or contact with the spots of a person with chicken pox. The incubation period is 2 – 3 weeks. During this time the virus replicates in the lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and a second viraemia occurs just before the rash appears. The infectious period starts one day before the rash appears and continues until the pox spots scab over.

Before the rash appears, the person may have a slight temperature, no appetite, feel tired, and have photophobia. The rash typically appears on the body and then spreads to the arms, legs, face and scalp. The rash can occur in the mouth. In girls, the rash can occur in the vagina area and cause discomfort. The rash is pimple-like at first, but turns into blisters. After a few days, they scab over. The scabs will then fall off, and should leave little or no scarring.

Complications which are rare could be:

Pneumonia – usual cause in adults is Staphylococcus Aureas

Bacterial super infection and encephalitis (rare in children)

Reye’s syndrome, mainly associated with the use of aspirin to control fever and pain

 Otitis media

 More Severe Rare Complications:

 Osteomyelitis, necrotising fasciitis, toxic shock syndrome, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, carditis, uveitis, myocarditis, bullous varicella, septic arthritis, deep tissue abscess, Group A beta-haemolytic streptococcus, nephritis, orchitis, thrombocytopenia, fulminant hepatitis, acute cerebellar ataxia, chorioretinitis, ocular defects, cutaneous scars, hypoplastic limbs, micrognathia, encephalomyelitis, cortical atrophy, and pneumonitis.

  

Shingles

 

After you have had chickenpox, the virus can lay dormant for decades until the immune system is suppressed, and then the virus can re-appear. It can reappear as chicken-pox again or as shingles. Shingles appears as large blisters, like welts, on one side of the body. They can appear on the stomach, back, chest, or even on one side of the face. Shingles can be accompanied by photophobia (sensitivity to light), tiredness, and severe itchiness or sting-like pain. 

 

 Chickenpox Vaccine-Varicella

The vaccine was originally developed for immune compromised leukemic children. The live varicella zoster vaccine for chicken pox had difficulty getting FDA approval for many years because of its high failure rate which was often as high as 20 percent. The varicella vaccine was licensed by the FDA in 1995, and Universal Varicella Vaccination Program was implemented shortly thereafter.  The CDC recommended that all healthy, susceptible children aged 12 months to 12 years receive a single dose. The CDC then funded a Varicella Active Surveillance Project (VASP) to monitor trends in the disease. The three different areas were: Antelope Valley (California), West Philadelphia (Pennsylvania), and Travis County (Texas). By 1999, each VASP reporting incidence of varicella had shown dramatic decline in their studied communities. Currently, nearly all states have mandated varicella vaccination for school entry.

 

Varivax (chickenpox) Package Insert

Proquad (chickenpox, measles, mumps, rubella) Package Insert 

Zostavax (Shingles) Package Insert

 

 

“…VARIVAX is a preparation of the Oka/Merck strain of live, attenuated varicella virus. The virus was initially obtained from a child with natural varicella, then introduced into human embryonic lung cell cultures adapted to and propagated in embryonic guinea pig cell cultures, and finally propagated in human diploid cell cultures (WI 38). Further passage of the virus for varicella vaccine was performed at Merck Research Laboratories in human diploid cell cultures (MRC-5) that were free of adventitious agents…”

 

“…Each 0.5 ml dose contains the following: a minimum of 1350 PFU (plaque forming units) of Oka/Merck varicella virus when reconstituted; approximately 25 mg of sucrose; 12.5 mg hydrolysed gelatine; 3.2 mg sodium chloride; 0.5 mg monosodium L-glutamate; 0.45 mg of sodium phosphate dibasic; 0.08 mg of potassium phosphate monobasic; 0.08 mg of potassium chloride; residual components of MRC-5 cells including DNA and protein; and trace quantities of sodium phosphate monobasic; EDTA; neomycin, and fetal bovine serum. The product contains no preservative…”

 Translation:   The culture medium is human embryonic lung cells, from an aborted fetus, embryonic guinea pig cell cultures, WI 38 which is a different cell line from another aborted fetus, and another aborted fetus labeled MRC-5.

 

 “…The nearly 2 m g of unmodified mammalian DNA in each dose of Varivax exceeds that present in any other approved childhood vaccine…” Other vaccines also contain unmodified DNA, but chickenpox contains more than the others.

 

A medical study was done to see if any of the 293 people vaccinated with Varivax developed anti-DNA antibodies from residual fetal tissue/DNA in the vaccine. The study stated that there were no significant changes in anti-DNA antibody, or the frequency of elevated anti-DNA titers. However, if these people have had other vaccines, which already contain human DNA, and they already have anti-DNA antibodies, exactly what does the ‘significance’ mean?   Another possibility considered was that the human DNA present in Varivax might integrate into and transform the vaccinated person’s cells. A Human Rights Committee on karyolitic controls of human substrates proposed limits for chromosomal abnormalities in human diploid cell lines used to manufacture biologic products. These guidelines have become:

 

“…generally accepted upper limits for chromosomal abnormalities. A clonal 7; 12 chromosomal translocation in the MRC-5 cells used to produce some lots of Varivax exceeded these limits for structural abnormalities. To evaluate the theoretical concerns raised by this observation Merck undertook a comprehensive assessment of MRC-5 (aborted fetal) cells to document that they were not tumorigenic. MRC-5 cells from the cell banks used to produce vaccine did not produce tumors when injected into nude mice, reached senescence normally, and did not exhibit a malignant phenotype. Cells bearing the 7; 12 translocation did not proliferate preferentially during the lifetime of the cell line in comparison with MRC-5 cells lacking the translocation. No human disease associated with abnormalities involving a 7; 12 translocation has been reported. Outside experts concurred with the FDA’s assessment that the risk of MRC-5 DNA’s inducing a malignant transformation in vaccinees under the condition of vaccination was exceedingly low…” (J Pediatrics 1995; 127:518-25)

 

 

This information will simply ‘prove’ to doctors that the vaccine is safe, but far from reassuring or proven. Varivax contains 2 mg of WI 38 and MRC-5 which are two aborted fetuses. The chromosomal abnormalities in this cell line exceed the currently accepted upper limits. Merck assumed a comprehensive assessment to document that they were not oncogenic. Also stated:

 

“…Detectable infectious agents were not present in the material used to produce Varivax, nor were they introduced during the manufacturing process…”

 

The key word is “detectable”. You can only find what you have a test to identify and what you are looking for. Fetal bovine serum, including batches previously passed by the FDA and WHO, has been documented to be contaminated with several different viruses in the past.  New viruses every year come out, and new tests have to be made to test for them. There is no guarantee that these vaccines do not contain something that is unable to be detected, but advanced testing might show it in the future. So the answer for manufacturers is to protect themselves with the word ‘detectable’. This way they can only be held liable in the future for those things which were able to be identified at the date of manufacture.

 

 

Testing and Safety of Varivax Vaccine:

 

“Pregnancy: the possible effects of the vaccine on fetal development are unknown at this time. However, natural varicella is known to sometimes cause fetal harm… the duration of protection is unknown … vaccination should be deferred for at least 5 months following blood or plasma transfusions, immune globulin or varicella zoster immune globulin … vaccine recipients should avoid use of salicylates for 6 weeks after vaccination as Reye’s syndrome has been reported following the use of salicylates during natural varicella infection … Varivax should be deferred in patients with a family history of congenital or hereditary immunodeficiency until the patient’s own immune system has been evaluated … post- marketing experience suggests that transmission of vaccine virus may occur rarely between healthy vaccinees who develop a varicella- like rash and healthy susceptible contacts…” (Merck, Sharpe &Dohme, 1999)

 

Varivax has not been evaluated for its carcinogenic or mutagenic potential or its potential to impair fertility. It is not known whether varicella vaccine virus is secreted in human milk. No clinical data are available on safety or efficacy of Varivax in children less than one year of age, and administration to infants under 12 months of age is not recommended.

 

Multiple trials and post licensing studies and testing of vaccinees in the U.S. were conducted in communities where natural, or wild type, varicella incidence was still high. Estimates of the vaccine effectiveness, and the duration of immunity were overestimated and distorted because of the immunologic boosting alluded to by Merck. When natural varicella remains high in the community, it boosts immunity in vaccinees that received a single dose and there were no adverse effects on the closely related herpes-zoster epidemiology. (Seward et al.2004) www.medicalveritas.com/R0010.pdf 

For more in depth information: Medical Veritas   

 

In 2007, the CDC published an article in the New England Journal of Medicine that stated Merck’s VARIVAX vaccine has a high failure rate and mass vaccination of children has caused the disease to occur in older age groups. Now the CDC states children between 4 and 6 years old need a booster dose and a third booster may be needed for teenagers.

In 2000, the FDA reported that during the first three years of the vaccine’s use, 1 in 33,000 doses was followed by shock, convulsions, encephalitis, thrombocytopenia or death. Roughly 82 percent of the adverse event reports to VAERS occurred in those who only received the chicken pox vaccine. This led to the addition of 17 adverse events to the Merck product label which  include secondary bacterial infections or cellulitis; secondary transmission, transverse myelitis; GBS, and herpes zoster. In 2000, VAERS received reports of brain inflammation, convulsions, vaccine strain chicken pox, shingles, regressive autism and other serious health problems following injection of Varivax, or in combination with MMR, DTaP, influenza, pneumococcal and/or other vaccines.
Even if chickenpox was nearly eradicated by vaccination, the higher number of shingles cases could continue in the US for up to 50 years.

      

 

In 2006, the FDA approved Merck’s shingles vaccine, ZOSTAVAX, for adults 60 years and older who have had chickenpox previously. The ACIP soon afterwards recommended it for all adults over 60 regardless of whether they had chickenpox previously or not. ZOSTAVAX is similar to Merck’s Varivax but is 14 times more potent.

“The principal reason that chicken pox vaccines in Japan maintained high levels of immunity 20 years following vaccination was that only 1 in 5 Japanese children were voluntarily vaccinated. Those vaccinated received immunologic boosting from contact with children with natural chickenpox. But the mandatory vaccination program in the U.S. will nearly eradicate this natural boosting mechanism and leave our population vulnerable to shingles.”

 

 

 

 

Vaccines provide temporary, qualitatively inferior immunity compared to immunity achieved after natural recovery from disease. And just as mass antibiotic use has put pressure on organisms to evolve into antibiotic resistant forms, mass vaccine use can put pressure on organisms to mutate into vaccine resistant forms.

 
The Shingles Vaccine

 With the increasing use of Varicella vaccine, HZ incidence among adults increased 90%, from 2.77/1000 to 5.25/1000 in the period 1998 to 2003. (Yih et al. 2005).

 

 The Varicella Active Surveillance Project conducting active surveillance of HZ in the Antelope Valley region of California since 2000 found that Zoster cases among adults aged 20 years and older increased 18% from 237 cases in 2000 to 279 in 2001 with increases in nearly every 10-year age group from 20–29 through 60–69.  Young adults from the pre-vaccine era, experienced the greatest percentage increase in cases.

 

 Vaccination of adults has seldom been successful and adults tend to experience a higher rate of adverse effects versus children. Varicella vaccination is considered safe but there are no prescreening tests to determine whether an adverse reaction is likely to occur (Poser 2003). The medical literature contains a number of adverse reactions following varicella vaccination.

 

 The Oxman et al. 2005 study looked at adverse effects in one-sixth of the subjects during 42 days following vaccination. Kaufman states:

 

“Extrapolating the results to 19,273 subjects in the whole treatment group, this group had 132 more cases (0.7%) of one or more serious adverse events and 4,677 more cases (24%) of one or more adverse events than the placebo group.”

 

There is evidence already that Zostavax can induce autoimmunity or worsen a pre-existing autoimmune disorder and raise the risk of heart disease conditions.

 

 An FDA review of the Zostavax clinical data concluded that the vaccine was effective at reducing shingles pain but did not significantly reduce shingles related hospitalizations or death. In the Shingles Prevention Study, which enrolled 38,546 patients, the vaccine reduced the rate of shingles in persons 60 or older by half, and reduced the rate of postherpetic neuralgia by 66.5%. Those results were reported in the New England Journal of Medicine. The 5 and ½ year-trial randomized 19,270 patients to the active vaccine. The vaccine reduced the burden of illness due to herpes zoster by 61%, reduced the rate of postherpetic neuralgia by 66.5%, and reduced the rate of herpes zoster by 51.3%.
An Adverse Events Monitoring Study (AEMS) was conducted to look at safety. In this smaller study, serious adverse events for all age groups were noted in 1.9% of Zostavax patients, versus 1.3% of patients receiving placebo in the 42 days following vaccination. In the entire study population, the rates of overall cardiovascular events (0.4%) including coronary artery disease related conditions (0.2%) were similar in those vaccinated with Zostavax or placebo. In the AEMS substudy, during the first 42 days after vaccination, the rate of overall cardiovascular events was higher after 0.6% after Zostavax versus 0.4% after placebo. The rate of coronary artery disease-related conditions was slightly higher in Zostavax arm (0.3% versus 0.2%).
  

 

The U.S. Universal Varicella Vaccination Program and its cost-benefit analysis is no longer valid because most communities with widespread varicella vaccine coverage are still getting chicken pox. A single dose was touted as providing lifelong immunity when it does not. There is an immunologically-mediated link between varicella incidence and HZ incidence and the vaccine is not safe. See Vaers reports.

 

 Primary Vaccine Failure after 1 Dose of Varicella Vaccine in Healthy Children
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 2008; 197:944–949

Universal immunization of young children with 1 dose of varicella vaccine was recommended in the United States in 1995, and it has significantly decreased the incidence of chickenpox. Outbreaks of varicella, however, are reported among vaccinated children. Although vaccine effectiveness has usually been 85%, rates as low as 44% have been observed. Whether this is from primary or secondary vaccine failure—or both—is unclear. We tested serum samples from 148 healthy children immunized against varicella in New York, Tennessee, and California to determine their seroconversion rates, before and after 1 dose of Merck/Oka varicella vaccine. The median age at vaccination was 12.5 months; postvaccination serum samples were obtained on average 4 months later. Serum was tested for antibodies against varicella-zoster virus (VZV) by use of the previously validated sensitive and specific fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen (FAMA) assay. Of 148 healthy child vaccinees, 113 (76%) seroconverted, and 24% had no detectable VZV FAMA antibodies. Our data contrast with reported seroconversion rates of 86%–96% by other VZV antibody tests and suggest that many cases of varicella in immunized children are due to primary vaccine failure. A second dose of varicella vaccine is expected to increase seroconversion rates and vaccine effectiveness.

 

Second Dose of Varicella Vaccine for Children: Are We Giving It Too Late?

The Journal of Infectious Diseases 2008; 197:944–949

A large case-control study indicated that the vaccine’s overall effectiveness up to 8 years after immunization was 87% [7]. Thus, although the vaccination program certainly was effective, “breakthrough” varicella (varicella in persons who had previously received varicella vaccine) occurred with some frequency. Since most breakthrough disease is mild, why does this matter? In the first place, children with breakthrough disease are able to transmit the virus to others, which has resulted in numerous disruptive outbreaks of varicella in day-care centers and in schools despite high rates of immunization at many of these sites [89]. Moreover, approximately one-third of children with breakthrough varicella have moderate or severe disease, and there has been at least one death in an immunized child. In addition, those who have had breakthrough varicella may be at higher risk of subsequently developing zoster than are immunized persons.

In June 2006, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended that a second dose of varicella vaccine be administered routinely to children [24]. Although the vaccine can be given as soon as 3 months after the first dose, it is recommended that it be administered between 4 and 6 years of age. This is largely because a combined measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMR-V) vaccine was approved in October, 2005 [25, 26]. As a result, both the first and second doses of varicella vaccine are easily given at the same time as MMR vaccine via this combined vaccine at 12–15 months and 4–6 years of age, respectively. This allows the second dose of the vaccine to be administered without requiring an additional injection in the already crowded schedule for childhood immunizations. However, if the substantial number of cases of breakthrough varicella is due to primary, rather than secondary, vaccine failure, this timing for the second dose risks leaving a substantial number of children susceptible for several years until they receive the second dose and may diminish its impact on the epidemiology of the disease.

To further complicate matters, the amount of varicella virus in monovalent varicella vaccine and in MMR-V vaccine differs substantially, because varicella vaccine is less immunogenic when combined with MMR vaccine in the same preparation. Monovalent varicella vaccine contains a minimum of 1350 pfu per dose, whereas MMR-V vaccine contains a minimum of 9700 pfu of varicella vaccine per dose (according to the package insert labeling) [27]. The few data available have indicated that, after 2 doses of monovalent vaccine, titers of antibody to VZV, as measured by gpELISA, increase by a factor of 12 but that, after 2 doses of MMR-V vaccine, titers may increase up to 40-fold [16, 28, 29]. However, immunogenicity of MMR-V vaccine has not been assessed using the clinically validated FAMA assay. Moreover, because of problems with production at Merck [30], MMR-V vaccine is either not available at this time or is in short supply, and most children are receiving monovalent vaccine. There is uncertainty about if and when MMR-V vaccine will again become available.

 

 

 

 

Chicken Pox/Shingles Treatment

  •  Vitamins A and C are the vitamin treatment of choice. Chickenpox can require large doses, but Shingles requires much larger doses. Selenium and Zinc are also beneficial.
  • Avoid sugar and undiluted fruit juices.

     

     

  •  Mint tea made with lemon balm or other mints may be beneficial: hyssop, oregano, peppermint, rosemary, sage, self-heal, spearmint or thyme. These are antiviral, anti-herpetic compounds. If there are spots in the throat, you can add licorice root. You could mix it with pear juice which is rich in antiviral caffeic acid.
  • Keep the skin clean and cool with frequent baths using 1 cup baking soda or 5 drops lavender essential oil in the bath water. Rubbing the juice from the fresh stems of aloe vera can also help the itching. Cider vinegar neat, used as compresses, changes the skin PH and when held against the pox spots can kill surface virus particularly where the blister is broken. No pox virus can survive a ph of 3.
  • An oil mix, for adults, is bergamot, chamomile, eucalyptus, geranium, lavender, lemon and tea tree oil… as above, or dilute them by adding 5 drops each to a couple of tablespoons of vegetable oil and apply them directly to rash if painful.
  • Epsom salts baths with oat straw/oatmeal-one cup per bath in a bag, hung under the hot water tap, and then float it, for children who are tense and itchy.
  • Echinacea and goldenseal combination helps prevent bacterial infections of the sores. So can Calendula (1 tsp tincture – 4 tsp water)
  • For severe, Lysine (an essential amino acid) inhibits replication of both chickenpox and shingles. Use 2,000 mg a day as a supplement (or smaller doses in children). Lysine works by blocking the virus’s ability to absorb arginine.
  • For pain in both children and adults, often the person is vitamin B deficient. For shingles in older adults, if nerve pain is severe B12 injections along with some of the others orally can relieve the pain, and shorten the course of illness.
  • If a bacterial infection looks like its setting in, a capsule of Transfer Factor may help. Breast milk, if available, may do the same.
  • Shingles is triggered by stress, and stress pulls out huge amounts of B-vitamins from the body. People with shingles need B supplementation.
  • For both chickenpox and shingles in adults, Hydrogen Peroxide gel, every 2 – 3 hours helps dry and heal blisters.
  • Alpha Lipoic acid is another some doctors prescribe for shingles in adults. It’s an antioxidant, and helps keep the scarring of both chickenpox and shingles to a minimum. It may affect blood sugar levels, so use with care with diabetics.
  • Pharmaceutical treatment for shingles is dependent upon symptom alleviation using drugs like prednisone and acyclovir.

 

CHICKEN POX: Why Do Children Die?

 

Age of Autism-Proquad Series:

Part 1    Part 2      Part 3      Part 4   Part 5     Part 6     Part 7

 

 

 

 

MMR Vaccine

MMR vaccine is it safe or effective? You be the judge based on the medical literature that is available to you.

 

 The MMR vaccine consists of 3 live viruses for Measles, Mumps and Rubella. The MMR-V has live chicken pox added to the mix. It contains a weakened or partially inactivated, live measles virus which is grown in cell cultures of a chick embryo. A weakened live strain of mumps virus is grown in cell cultures of a chick embryo. A weakened Wistar RA 27/3 strain of live attenuated rubella virus which is grown in human diploid cell (W-38) culture originating from the tissues of a fetus aborted in 1964. There is no preservative such as Thimerosal(mercury). It contains the antibiotic neomycin, and Sorbitol and Hydrolyzed Gelatin as stabilizers. All three live viruses are available as single vaccines but doctors will most often tell you they are not available, or refuse to give them as separate vaccines.

 

 How it can shed to others:

 

Mumps vaccine virus genome is present in throat swabs obtained from uncomplicated healthy recipients. 
  
Seven children were followed for up to 42 days post-vaccination with live mumps vaccine and 37 throat swabs were obtained serially. Viral genomic RNA was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the phosphoprotein (P) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) regions. Virus isolation was also attempted. Genomic differentiation of detected mumps virus genome was performed by sequence analysis and/or restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). No adverse reaction was observed in these children. Although mumps virus was not isolated from any of the samples, viral RNA was detected in four samples from three vaccine recipients, 18, 18 and 26, and 7 days after vaccination, respectively. Detected viral RNA was identified as the vaccine strain. Our data suggests that vaccine virus inoculated replicates in the parotid glands but the incidence of virus transmission from recipients to other susceptible subjects should be low. 

 

Detection of measles vaccine in the throat of a vaccinated child. 
   
Measles vaccine is widely used, most often in association with mumps and rubella vaccines. We report here the case of a child presenting with fever 8 days after vaccination with a measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. Measles virus was isolated in a throat swab taken 4 days after fever onset. This virus was then further genetically characterised as a vaccine-type virus. Fever occurring subsequent to measles vaccination is related to the replication of the live attenuated vaccine virus. In the case presented here, the vaccine virus was isolated in the throat, showing that subcutaneous injection of an attenuated measles strain can result in respiratory excretion of this virus. 
 

 Reactions to MMR Vaccine are Triphasic:

Any reactions that are 6 – 14 days are the measles component and usually show as temperature and rash, and sometimes seizures.
The second phase is between 11 and 32 days which is the mumps components. This can consist of temperature, seizures, and acquiring mumps.
The third phase can occur within the first 0 – 30 days, and is the rubella component. It can cause joint pain or arthritis. This most often occurs in adolescents and adults, and perhaps babies, but they wouldn’t be able to tell you.

 

  
 Delaying MMR until a child is older makes it ‘safer’? The reality is there is no ‘safe’ time to delay as reactions can occur at any time if the conditions are right. A 6 year old, or 12 year old child, or a young adult can have serious reactions or death associated with the vaccine. Parents can opt to have titer tests done first.
 

 

 

The CDC, AAP, FDA, NIH, etc., can say what they wish to the public and promote MMR and its safety, continue to put their heads in the sand, and talk out their rear ends, but let’s get real and look at some of the studies:


AAP Study: Relationship b/t MMR & Encephalitis w/ Perm. Brain Injury or Death.

  

 

The purpose of this study of claims submitted to the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program is to determine whether or not there is evidence for a causal relationship between the first dose of a currently used attenuated measles vaccine, MR, MMR, mumps, or rubella vaccine and encephalopathy of undetermined cause with permanent brain injury or death that occurred within 15 days after administration.
A total of 403 [compensation] claims of encephalopathy and/or seizure disorder after measles, MR, MMR, mumps, or rubella vaccination were identified during this 23-year period [1970-1993]. Of these claims, 48 (25 males and 23 females) met the inclusion criteria and acquired an acute encephalopathy of undetermined cause 2 to 15 days after receiving measles vaccine, MR, or MMR. This acute encephalopathy was followed by permanent brain impairment or death. The patients ranged in age from 10 months to 49 months, with a median age of 15 months and a mean age of 17.5 months.
Results
A total of 48 children, ages 10 to 49 months, met the inclusion criteria after receiving measles vaccine, alone or in combination. Eight children died, and the remainder had mental regression and retardation, chronic seizures, motor and sensory deficits, and movement disorders. The onset of neurologic signs or symptoms occurred with a nonrandom, statistically significant distribution of cases on days 8 and 9. No cases were identified after the administration of monovalent mumps or rubella vaccine.
Conclusions
This clustering suggests that a causal relationship between measles vaccine and encephalopathy may exist as a rare complication of measles immunization
 
 
  Former science chief: ‘MMR fears coming true’

 He said he has seen a “steady accumulation of evidence” from scientists worldwide that the measles, mumps and rubella jab is causing brain damage in certain children.

But he added: “There are very powerful people in positions of great authority in Britain and elsewhere who have staked their reputations and careers on the safety of MMR and they are willing to do almost anything to protect themselves.”
 In the late Seventies, Dr Fletcher served as Chief Scientific Officer at the DoH and Medical Assessor to the Committee on Safety of Medicines, meaning he was responsible for deciding if new vaccines were safe.

He first expressed concerns about MMR in 2001, saying safety trials before the vaccine’s introduction in Britain were inadequate.
Now he says the theoretical fears he raised appear to be becoming reality.
He said the rising tide of autism cases and growing scientific understanding of autism-related bowel disease have convinced him the MMR vaccine may be to blame.
“Clinical and scientific data is steadily accumulating that the live measles virus in MMR can cause brain, gut and immune system damage in a subset of vulnerable children,” he said. “There’s no one conclusive piece of scientific evidence, no ‘smoking gun’, because there very rarely is when adverse drug reactions are first suspected. When vaccine damage in very young children is involved, it is harder to prove the links.
“But it is the steady accumulation of evidence, from a number of respected universities, teaching hospitals and laboratories around the world, that matters here. There’s far too much to ignore. Yet government health authorities are, it seems, more than happy to do so.”

 “Yet there has been a tenfold increase in autism and related forms of brain damage over the past 15 years, roughly coinciding with MMR’s introduction, and an extremely worrying increase in childhood inflammatory bowel diseases and immune disorders such as diabetes, and no one in authority will even admit it’s happening, let alone try to…

 

 

   Very informative presentation:

The Seat of the Soul The Origins of the Autism Epidemic

 

Sally Beck wrote an article on the study at Wake Forest University School of Medicine in North Carolina titled Scientists fear MMR link to autism”, which was similar to the one reported by Andrew Wakefield, MD, in 1998.


In the American study, 275 children with regressive autism and bowel disease
were evaluated. Of the 82 children completely tested, 70 proved positive for
the measles virus. Beck quoted Stephen Walker, MD, the team leader as
saying, “Of the handful of results we have in so far, all are vaccine strain
and none are wild measles. This research proves that in the gastrointestinal
tract of a number of children, who have been diagnosed with regressive
autism, there is evidence of measles virus.”

Very little was reported about the Wake Forest research in the American media. But with no surprise, immediately afterwards, this came out:

Reuters Health Information in New York published an account of a different study headlined No Evidence of Measles Virus in MMR-Vaccinated Autistic Children.” It said “contrary to the findings of some earlier studies, measles virus genetic material was not detected in the blood of MMR-vaccinated autistic children with development regression, according to a report in the Journal of Medical Virology for May.”

 

 

 
So here we have two studies that are contradictory. What are the differences between the two studies?
 
 
 
 In the U.S. study, measles virus genomic RNA was actually found in the gut of 70 affected children and the viral results of another 200 children with typical gut pathology are still pending.

In the U.K. study, the researchers “could not detect” measles virus genetic material in the blood of 15 MMR-vaccinated children with autism.

It is essential to also point out that the above-mentioned M.A. Afzal is not N.A. Afzal, a pediatric gastroenterologist attached to the Centre for Pediatric Gastroenterology at The Royal Free Hospital, London, U.K. It was at the Royal Free Hospital that Andrew Wakefield practiced gastroenterology for years and where he was the shining star before he dared to “rock the boat” and was forced to resign. It is also at the Royal Free and University College Medical School in London that Brent Taylor, one of Wakefield’s most vocal critics, is professor of community pediatrics. N.A. Afzal published his first study with the Royal Free team in December 2002.  He published two more studies in 2004 and one in 2005. The abstracts of all four studies did not contain any reference to autism and vaccines.

M.A. Afzal, on the other hand, is a member of the virology department at the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC). The Institute is a respected multi-disciplinary scientific establishment with national and international roles in the standardization and control of biological substances including viral and bacterial vaccines. Since 1976, the institute has been directly funded by the United Kingdom Health Departments.

But back to M.A. Afzal of the NIBSC, who according to Reuters was certain in 2006 that the measles virus material genuinely did not exist in the patients ‘ blood samples because he and his team did not find it. He must have been aware that a Japanese team from Tokyo University led by H. Kawashima had found the same “genetic material” in the blood of children with autism in 2000: “In order to characterize the strains that may be present, we have carried out the detection of measles genomic RNA in peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC) in eight patients with Crohn’s disease, three patients with ulcerative colitis, and nine children with autistic enterocolitis…”

Kawashima discovered and reported that “the sequences obtained from the children with autism were consistent with being vaccine strains” and that the results were concordant with the exposure history of those children.

 

 

So how come Team Tokyo found vaccine-strain measles virus genomic RNA in peripheral mononuclear cells of vaccinated autistic children in 2000 and Team U.K. found nothing in 2006? The answer to that perplexing and rather sensitive question may be in a very interesting study that was published in the Journal of Medical Virology in May 2003, titled appropriately “Comparative evaluation of measles virus-specific RT-PCR methods through an international collaborative study” and authored by both Afzal and Kawashima, in addition to renowned experts A.D. Osterhaus, S.L. Cosby, L. Jin, J. Beeler and K. Takeuchi.

 

 

Measles infection and inflammatory bowel disease


Afzal and colleagues published “Absence of detectable measles virus genome sequence in inflammatory bowel disease tissues and peripheral blood lymphocytes” in the Journal of Medical Virology.  According to the authors, in spite of using a “highly sensitive measles-specific RT-PCR-nested PCR system,” they failed to detect the presence of measles virus in 93 colon biopsies and 31 peripheral blood lymphocyte preparations, examined and obtained from patients with IBD and non-inflammatory controls.

It seems from the above that M.A. Afzal was looking for evidence of viral presence in the colon (large intestine) and did not find any. Wakefield had better luck, a little later, when he looked for such evidence in the ileum. Afzal was certainly aware that the children tested by the Royal Free Team had ileal lymphonodular hyperplasia.

 
(Lancet. 1998.Feb 28; 351(9103): 646-7. PMID: 9500326) (J Med Virol. 2003 May; 70(1): 171-6. PMID: 12629660) (Absence of measles-virus genome in inflammatory bowel disease. Ital J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1998 Aug; 30(4): 378-82. PMID: 9789132)  (Absence of detectable measles virus genome sequence in inflammatory bowel disease tissues and peripheral blood lymphocytes. J Med Virol. 1998 Jul; 55(3): 243-9.)
 
 
 
 

 

  Measles virus and Crohn’s disease

In April 1999, Wakefield, Montgomery and Pounder published “Crohn’s disease: the case for measles virus.”  They reported, “We and others have suggested that measles virus may be causally related to Crohn’s disease, and that the associated risk is an atypical pattern of exposure. The data for Crohn’s disease suggest that persistent infection may follow early low dose exposure and low zone immunological tolerance. The changing pattern of measles virus exposure this century would be consistent with a shift toward lower dose of infection. Such an exposure would also be consistent with persistence of the virus at very low copy number within discrete foci of granulomatous inflammation..”  Afzal, Minor, Armitage and Gosh published “Measles virus and Crohn’s disease” in June of the same year.  

(2000: MMR Wakefield AJ, Montgomery SM, Pounder RE. Crohn’s disease: the case for measles virus. Ital J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1999 Apr; 31(3): 247-54. Review. PMID: 10379489.)  (Afzal MA, Minor PD, Armitage E, Ghosh S. Measles virus and Crohn’s disease. Gut. 1999 Jun; 44(6): 896-7. PMID: 10375297 Safety Review.)

Measles, mumps, rubella vaccine: through a glass, darkly,” Wakefield and Montgomery reviewed the safety testing of MMR vaccine or lack thereof.

(Potential viral pathogenic mechanism for new variant inflammatory bowel disease. Mol Pathol. 2002 Apr; 55(2): 84-90. PMID: 11950955)

In “Clinical safety issues of measles, mumps and rubella vaccines,” Afzal, Minor and Schild did not directly respond but essentially reviewed all the studies that had been done by the anti-Wakefield camp and had failed to identify the presence of measles virus genomic RNA in patients with IBD. In the available abstract, M.A. Afzal stated, “Based on the published data reviewed here, it can be concluded that there is no direct association between measles virus or measles vaccines and the development of Crohn’s disease, a conclusion which is supported by most epidemiological findings.” (Bull World Health Organ. 2000; 78(2): 199-204. Review. PMID: 10743285)

As to the safety of the MMR vaccine, the Cochrane MMR Review: “The design and reporting of safety outcomes in MMR vaccine studies, both pre- and post-marketing, are largely inadequate.”

 

April 2002

 

In “Potential viral pathogenic mechanism for new variant inflammatory bowel disease,” Uhlmann and associates, including Wakefield, published results of their meticulous research. It revealed that “75 of 91 patients with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of ileal lymphonodular hyperplasia and enterocolitis were positive for measles virus in their intestinal tissue compared with five of 70 control patients. Measles virus was identified within the follicular dendritic cells and some lymphocytes in foci of reactive follicular hyperplasia. The copy number of measles virus ranged from one to 300,00 copies/ng total RNA.” The authors concluded, “The data confirm an association between the presence of measles virus and gut pathology in children with developmental disorder.” 

 

(Dig Dis Sci. 2000. Apr; 45(4): 723-9.)

 

March 2008-

 

 

MMR: Vaccine can cause blood disorder

 There’s more bad news for advocates of the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine with the discovery this week that it can cause a blood disorder.  Researchers have found that it may trigger immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), an immune system malfunction that destroys the body’s own blood platelets. The effect seems to last for an average of seven days, during which time the child’s platelet count could fall.

The risk is relatively low, say researchers, and one case of ITP will be caused per 40,000 vaccinations.  The risk appears to last for up to 42 days after vaccination.
Researchers from Kaiser Permanente Colorado, Denver analyzed the health profiles of more than 1 million children who had been vaccinated.  Of these, 259 developed ITP, and they reckon the vaccine was responsible for 76 per cent of these cases.
(Source: Pediatrics, 2008; 121: e687-e692).

 
 

 

Persistence of Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Antibodies in an MMR-Vaccinated Cohort: A 20-Year Follow-up.

 

Conclusions.  A high rate of seropositivity was found 20 years after the first MMR dose, particularly for rubella and measles. Our results show that MMR vaccine–induced antibodies wane significantly after the second dose. According to epidemiological data, the protection induced by MMR vaccination in Finland seems to persist at least until early adulthood. However, the situation requires constant vigilance. (The Journal of Infectious Diseases 2008;197:950–956)

 

 MMR vaccine and Tylenol Use:

 Acetaminophen (paracetamol) use, measles-mumps-rubella vaccination, and autistic disorder: The results of a parent survey.


The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80 control children. Acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was significantly associated with autistic disorder when considering children 5 years of age or less (OR 6.11, 95% CI 1.42-26.3), after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.11-14.3), and when considering only children who had post-vaccination sequelae (OR 8.23, 95% CI 1.56-43.3), adjusting for age, gender, mother’s ethnicity, and the presence of illness concurrent with measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Ibuprofen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was not associated with autistic disorder. This preliminary study found that acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was associated with autistic disorder.
 We know that acetaminophen impairs the glutathione pathways, as well as hormone balance. The glutathione pathways are the same ones involved in naturally “chelating” out metals. Acetaminophen can also suppress the immune system and when given with Gardasil, results in a lower antibody development. Thus it can crash some aspects of the immune system. So, if autism results from a situation where if the immune system is suppressed and nutrition isn’t quite right, the body is not able to clear out heavy metals, and then anything can make that situation worse and contribute to the problem. This study does not mean that MMR is not implicated, but that Acetaminophen was part of an overall negative equation.

 

Proquad

 Children suffered higher rates of fever-related convulsions when they received the combination vaccine Proquad instead of two separate shots. The study (Nicola P. Klein, MD, PhD, a research scientist from Northern California Kaiser Permanente and co-director of the Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center) which included children ages 12 months through 23 months, found the rate of seizures was twice as high in toddlers who got ProQuad, compared with those who got separate shots for MMR and Chicken Pox (Varicella vaccine).

ProQuad was licensed in 2005 but had suspended production because of manufacturing problems. There is five times more chickenpox antigen in the ProQuad shot than in the Varicella vaccine.

 

ACIP approves MMRV vaccine revision 2008

Possible increased risk for febrile seizures found among children aged 12 to 23 months after receipt of MMRV vaccine.

“MMRV vaccine has not been widely distributed in the United States since June 2007 and is not expected to be available again until 2009; however, some providers might still have some supply in stock,” she said. “As far as postvaccination safety monitoring, in October 2007 following FDA review of adverse event reports submitted to VAERS and Merck’s worldwide adverse experience system, MMRV vaccine labeling was updated to include convulsion and febrile seizures among adverse reactions postvaccination.”

Quick Picks:

 

According to The New England Journal of Medicine, 60 percent of all measles cases among American school children between 1985 and 1986 occurred in those who were vaccinated.

  The Journal of the American Medical Association published a study in 1986, which showed that among 235 cases of student measles reported in Dane County, Wisconsin; more than 96 percent had received a measles vaccine. A study reported in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report found that 58 percent of 1600 cases of measles in Quebec, Canada, in 1989 occurred in those who had already been vaccinated.  The World Health Organization has conceded that those administered the measles vaccine have a 14 times greater likelihood of contracting the disease than those who remain unvaccinated.

 

 Jamie Murphy “The vaccine can never duplicate the kind of immunity that we get from nature…When children get the measles after they’ve been vaccinated, they’re getting it from the vaccine and the virus (because there’s so much virus in the vaccine that stays in the body). When their resistance becomes lowered, that can become reactivated. Also, when a natural epidemic of measles occurs, as it does every three to four years in the United States, those children who have been vaccinated, because they did not get a true immunity from the vaccine, become susceptible to measles.”

 Vera Scheibner reports that “In April 1993, the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Japan decided to discontinue the use of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (Sawada et al., 1993). This decision was prompted by published reports of vaccinated children and their (unvaccinated) contacts contracting mumps from the MMR vaccine, and reports of one in 1044 vaccinees developing encephalitis.”

 

A study published in 1994 in the Archives of Internal Medicine evaluated all U.S. and Canadian articles reporting measles outbreaks in schools, and found that, on average, 77 percent of all measles cases in these outbreaks were occurring among vaccinated individuals. The authors concluded that “the apparent paradox is that as measles immunization rates rise to high levels in a population, measles becomes a disease of immunized persons.

 

 In 2007, a study performed at the National Institute of Communicable Diseases in South Africa reviewed the increase in mumps outbreaks in the UK and US. In the US, 56,000 cases were reported in 2004-2005. Many of these cases are occurring on college campuses. A mumps outbreak at a New York summer camp found that 96% of those infected had prior vaccination coverage. A similar outbreak in Nova Scotia among vaccinated adolescents and young adults has also been reviewed and it was found that the virus’ genotype was the same as that in the UK and US. These recent outbreaks have raised concerns among scientists about the effectiveness of the mumps vaccine in the MMR. According to the South African scientist, there may be a waning immunity towards mumps in the vaccinated population, which in time could make the vaccine ineffective. Belgian scientists came to the conclusion that the secondary mumps vaccination was a failure during a 2004 outbreak affecting 105 Belgian children from ages 3-12.

 Antibody levels 5 to 6 years after immunization with (the now discredited) high-potency EZ and high-potency Schwarz measles vaccine were insufficient in 40 percent and 50 percent of vaccinated children. The authors concluded, “Given the rapid decline in antibody titers over a 5- to 6-year period in an area where measles vaccine coverage was high, it seems likely that multiple-dose immunization schedules will be needed in the future to maintain protective antibody concentrations….”

 

As a consequence of the fact that antibody response to the vaccine virus is temporary, today we are facing cases of atypical measles occurring in infants under a year old, as well as in older children and in adults. Atypical measles is a severe disease that was first described in the early 70s in children, and later in adolescents and young adults exposed to the wild-type measles virus several years after being vaccinated with the killed or attenuated measles vaccine. The condition is characterized by atypical rash, high fever, cough, headache, and pneumonia. Further complications can include hepatitis, persistence of pulmonary lesions for several years, thrombocytopenia and other circulatory system problems, and cardiac involvement.

 

Another problem found with measles vaccination, documented in several studies, is that it produces immune suppression that contributes to an increased susceptibility to other infections.


The 60% of people who were vaccinated in 1970 have caused many of them to be susceptible to natural measles, because the shots were given too early. This is also why most analyses which profess to have a scientific element, go from the 1973 licensure.

Atypical measles explained by James Cherry: (PMID: 14765342. Page 505).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

   

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Measles

     Measles was once considered a harmless childhood disease just like Chicken Pox.  You exposed your child to it so they caught it and ‘got it over with’. No one feared measles, just as they did not fear Chicken Pox.

     The Measles vaccine had a low uptake in the past as parents did not want a vaccine for a virus such as Measles because it was considered self-limiting and benign. Children began receiving the vaccine more widely only after the 1977 Childhood Immunization Initiative  and school vaccine mandates were enforced.

     

     Measles can be a very useful disease in children. They can build a super immune system after having gone through measles. Children with eczema are often cured or relieved of any signs of the condition. Their speech often improves and they go through a maturation process. Many children have been known to make tremendous developmental strides after measles. In the past, when a child was on dialysis, a hospital might have encouraged parents to naturally expose and infect their child with measles because they saw great improvements in the child’s condition.

Even today, the childhood Immunization Initiative is in full force, but it has not stopped Measles from being eliminated.

  

History

 
     From 1963 – 1967 the U.S. had used the killed Measles vaccine. It had a very low uptake which was a good thing in retrospect as it was a disastrous vaccine. It was made with killed measles virus, which skewed the recipient’s immune systems, making them more susceptible to measles after just two years, but in a new form- “atypical measles”.  It was characterized by pneumonia, high fever, atypical rash and a high fatality rate. It was a disease which could be gotten repeatedly.  The vaccine was quickly and silently removed.

 

     A new live vaccine was licensed in 1967, but even that was not used extensively.  At first it was to be given to all infants at approximately 12 months of age. Then it was changed to 6 months, especially if there was measles going around. By 1979, they knew they had problems with this one as well. Babies vaccinated at 6 months of age developed what they called an ‘altered immune response’ which resulted in booster shots at 15 months. Nature published an article which showed that babies under one year of age have very different immune functions and responses than adults do, and simply could not handle the measles vaccine given at that age. It caused immune “energy” rather than an “altered” immune response. Again, these issues were kept quiet and uptake continued to be low. Doctors were encouraged not to report measles cases if possible, so that parents wouldn’t lose confidence in the vaccine. Therefore, you would hear terms such as ‘morbilli-like, or “red measles’.

 

     Since most epidemic outbreaks in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s occurred in  95 – 100% of vaccinated children, a second MMR ‘booster’ vaccine was added to the schedule. By 1990 the actual disease was much rarer, and was simply a continuation of a trend which had been going on right up until the 80’s even in the totally unvaccinated communities. (Clinical Pediatrics). Speaking of Booster shots, do all children need them? No.  The second dose, or booster shot, is to revaccinate the approximated 5% of people for whom the vaccine never worked the first time, also known as primary vaccine failure. That leaves us with roughly 95% getting revaccinated who may never have needed to be. Secondary vaccine failure is due to waning immunity, and even with a second dose schedule in childhood or early adulthood, outbreaks continue to occur in the vaccinated population.

 

 

     Health Departments like to say that keeping unvaccinated children away from vaccinated children will protect vaccinated children. They will also say that vaccines protect children. So isn’t that an oxymoron? If vaccines protect, aren’t they already vaccine ‘protected’?  Unfortunately the answer is no. In 1991 over 60% of Measles cases were in vaccinated children, and cases of Measles continue to occur in the vaccinated.

 

 

     If anyone should be wary of Measles transmission it is the unvaccinated from the vaccinated. Right in the package insert, it states that MMR vaccinated children can excrete Measles Virus and the Mumps virus into the environment. The Chicken Pox vaccine can also be excreted with the MMR-V or Varicella vaccine. Babies, unvaccinated, the immunodeficient, and even older persons can be at risk from newly vaccinated people. Why aren’t parents being told this?

 

 

Detection of measles vaccine in the throat of a vaccinated child.

 

Mumps vaccine virus genome is present in throat swabs obtained from uncomplicated healthy recipients.

 

 Some Basic Facts:

 

     The measles vaccine had nothing to do with the decline in deaths, and has not affected the number of children hospitalized during epidemic years since its introduction.

 

     Concerning the 1991 USA measles outbreak, over half the deaths were in the vaccinated and most deaths were in immunodeficeint people. (Washington Post. June 14, 1991, BMJ, 11 May, 1991). When news reports talk of Measles reported deaths or more serious injury, why don’t they tell the whole truth?

 

     In Africa, children who have a natural measles infection have half the asthma, allergies and eczema compared with their vaccinated peers. (Lancet, June 29, 1996) 
 
 
 

 

 

     The Germans considered the risks of the vaccine too high given  the fact that deaths and disease severity had decreased without any reference to a vaccine.  
 
     In the pre vaccine era, mothers’ antibodies protected babies for at least a year to a year and a half. Measles was mainly an infection of 5 – 9 year olds and by 15 yrs, 99% had antibodies. Today, adults and infants under one year of age are acquiring Measles which can be very serious.
 
     Vaccinated mothers cannot give protective antibodies to their babies, like Mothers’ who have had naturally acquired Measles, can. Therefore, young babies for whom measles can be more serious are no longer protected.  In the pre-vaccine era, babies rarely got measles before 18 months because maternal antibodies were very high as a result of natural immunity. Today maternal antibodies are generally so low from a vaccine that it simply does not prime the immune system like natural infection will. Babies are at risk of getting measles at younger and younger ages, because maternal antibodies no longer last 15 – 18 months. So if there is even the slightest nutritional or immunological problem, babies will have an increased danger from the measles virus, as there is a difference between the immune system of a baby and a toddler. Vaccinated babies who have maternal antibodies, or people who have measles suppressed with gamma globulin, can have a higher rate of  immunoreactive diseases, sebaceous skin diseases, degenerative cartilage,  bone disease, and certain tumors.  (Lancet, 5 Jan 1985) Also see:
Maternal antibodies interfere with measles vaccination.

 

 

     Now think about this…A study published in BMJ years ago found that a select group of children tested, 50% of those with antibodies to measles had never had any clinical disease, and a small subgroup with rising titers also had no clinical symptoms. Non-symptomatic clinical measles was a common entity. This is also shown for Chicken Pox, and several other diseases. To use antibody statistics as proof of either how dangerous or widespread a disease is is a false argument. Measles, like some other diseases, are also dependant upon regular exposure to the bacteria. Which is why in the U.S. Measles is becoming common amongst older adults, who had it clinically as children. Their long term immunity has been jeopardized by the interruption of the bacteria in the environment, so that their levels are no longer automatically boosted every few years.

 

 

 

Measles Basics-

 

     One sign or symptom specific to measles is Koplik Spots which look like bluish-white grains of salt which can be seen on the inside of the cheek, near the second upper molar, but may also be on the gums anywhere in the mouth.  In the early stages there is also cough, runny nose and fever. This will last for a few days. (Medicine International, 1984, pg 20, Viral Diseases in Man, 83rd Edition, pg 412.)

 

     The treatment and cure for Measles is called Vitamin A.  As early as 1932, doctors used cod-liver oil to reduce hospital mortality by 57%.  When antibiotics became the timely treatment, Vitamin A was thrown out, up until the mid-80’s that is. Published studies have found that 72% of hospitalized Measles cases in in the U.S. are Vitamin A deficient. The worse Vitamin A deficiency, the worse the complications and the higher the death rate will be. (Pediatric Nursing, Sept/Oct 1996.)

 

     Measles does not kill children. It is the complications from measles that might attack an already weak immune system. When it knocks down the immune system, the child may become susceptible to other diseases, or develop a secondary infection due to mismanagement of the illness, such as using fever reducing medication, or with a Vitamin A deficiency.  One of the big reasons why third world children suffer from complications of measles and other diseases can be viewed here

 


     Vaccinations will always be the higher priority. The focus will be on vaccinating as many as they can and fixing the cause of death is secondary to vaccination. If these children were properly nourished and had access to clean water, they wouldn’t be dying. The substitution of vaccination over proper nutrition, sleep, clean water, etc., will not prevent more serious illness or death.

 

     There will be some who will say the theory of herd immunity is real, that Measles has declined due to a vaccine; deaths have been prevented, etc. However, when you factor in mild and subclinical cases which often are not counted, what have we really prevented? Incidence data ignores these cases which make it appear to be something it may very well not be. What about the number of deaths and injury from the vaccine itself? Maybe a financial cost factor needs to be done between treating naturally acquired Measles vs. the injuries and death associated with the vaccine.

 

Speaking of which…MMR and MMR-V coming soon!