Kawasaki’s disease, acrodynia, and mercury.

Kawasaki’s disease, acrodynia, and mercury. 

PMID: 19075648

A superantigen or autoimmunity has been hypothesized to be the main cause of the Kawasaki’s Disease but the etiology is unknown. Medical literature, epidemiological findings, and some case reports have suggested that mercury may play a pathogenic role. Several patients with Kawasaki’s Disease have presented with elevated urine mercury levels compared to matched controls. Most symptoms and diagnostic criteria which are seen in children with acrodynia, known to be caused by mercury, are similar to those seen in Kawasaki’s Disease. Genetic depletion of glutathione S-transferase , a susceptibility marker for Kawasaki’s Disease, is known to be also a risk factor for acrodynia and may also increase susceptibility to mercury . Coinciding with the largest increase (1985-1990) of thimerosal (49.6% ethyl mercury) in vaccines, routinely given to infants in the U.S. by 6 months of age (from 75microg to 187.5microg), the rates of Kawasaki’s Disease increased ten times, and, later (1985-1997), by 20 times. Since 1990 88 cases of patients developing Kawasaki’s Disease some days after vaccination have been reported to the Centers of Disease Control (CDC) including 19% manifesting symptoms the same day. The presented pathogenetic model may lead to new preventive- and therapeutic strategies for Kawasaki’s disease.


Types of Mecury:


Ethylmercury(Thimerosal) is what is used as a preservative in vaccines, also fungicides, antibiotic eye drops, nasal sprays, ear preparations, some cosmetics and some contact lens solutions 
Other names for ethylmercury: 
Sodium ethylmercurithiosalicylate 
Ethyl (2-mercaptobenzoato-S) mercury sodium salt 
[(o-carboxyphenyl)thio] Ethylmercury sodium salt 
Dimethylmercury(pure) is a liquid that can be absorbed thru the skin. Elemental mercury or pure mercury=metal mixtures such as dental fillings-toxic when released into the environment, mercury thermometers, fluorescent light bulbs, exists in the earths crust. 
Methlymercury-Organic Mercury(mercuric salts) is the fish association and its environmental.  
Also used medically as fungicides and antibacterials 
Ionic Mercury-coal burning emmissions, formed in the atmosphere from elemntal mercury vapors




Synonyms and Trade Names for Thimerosal

Compiled by Melissa McCullough, Dana Farber Cancer Institute
Ethyl (2-mercaptobenzoato-S) mercury sodium salt
[(o-carboxyphenyl)thio] Ethylmercury sodium salt
o-(Ethylmercurithio)benzoic acid sodium salt
Elcide 75
Ethylmercurithiosalicyclic acid, sodium salt
Ethylmercurithiosalicylate sodium
Ethylmercurithiosalicylate sodium salt
Mercurate(1-), {ethyl[o-mercaptobenzoato(2-)]-,} sodium
Mercurate(1-), {ethyl[2-mercaptobenzoato(2-)-O,S]-,} sodium
Mercury, ethyl(hydrogen o-mercaptobenzoato)-, sodium salt
Mercury, ethyl(2-mercaptobenzoato-S)- sodium salt
Mercury {[(ocarboxyphenyl)thio]ethyl}-sodium salt
Merseptyl (VAN)
Merthiol ate®
Merthiolate salt
Merthiolate sodium
Merzonin sodium
Merzonin, sodium salt
Sodium ethylmercurithiosalicylate
Sodium ethylmercuric thiosalicylate
Sodium ethylmercurithiosalicylate
Sodium merthiolate
Sodium o-(ethylmercurithio)benzoate
Sodium salt of 2-(carboxyphenyl)thioethylmercury
Sodium 2-(ethylmercurithio)benzoate
Thimerosal solution
Thimerosol solution



Mercury Free-Is it Really Free?


Removal means that Thimerosal was used during the production process but was

Removed /filtered at a certain stage during production resulting in residual traces remaining in the vaccine.


Reduction of thimerosal means that it is still used but reduced in comparison with the amount in the already licensed vaccine.


Elimination means it is not used in any stage of production and considered truly Thimerosal-free.


In order to know what you are getting, you can ask to see the package insert and read thru the ingredients list first. However, mercury goes under different names and  the FDA allows vaccines to be labeled “mercury-free” even though they can still legally contain a certain amount of mercury, as mercury is actually part of the antiquated process of manufacturing vaccines, which has pretty much remain unchanged over 60 years.  Source





United States Environmental Protection Agency http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/hazwaste/mercury/regs.htm#hazwaste

Virtually every thimerosal vaccine administered during the 1990’s contained levels of mercury which were hundreds of times more toxic than hazardous waste according to the EPA’s website.


This is a federal law that applies to all states:

“If mercury levels in a waste exceed the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Test (TCLP) level of 0.2 mg/L for mercury, then the waste is identified as a hazardous waste based on the toxicity characteristic”.
Note that most vaccines administered during the 1990’s to infants (all children younger than two were subject to the mandatory vaccine schedule) contained levels of thimerosal consistent with those solutions being hundreds of times more toxic than hazardous waste according to the above set-forth EPA website.  Presently, flu vaccine contains 50 mg/l of mercury from the thimerosal preservative.  The concentration of mercury in the flu vaccine (containing thimerosal) presently being recommended to babies and pregnant women is  250 Times more toxic than the above level the EPA considers to be hazardous waste. 


 The biohazards of thimerosal are presented here: (sorry-url has been removed)


Consider these numbers:

0.5 parts per billion (ppb) mercury = Kills human neuroblastoma cells (Parran et al., Toxicol Sci 2005; 86: 132-140).

2 ppb mercury = U.S. EPA limit for drinking water. (http://www.epa.gov/safewater/contaminants/index.html#mcls)

20 ppb mercury = Neurite membrane structure destroyed (Leong et al., Neuroreport 2001; 12: 733-37).

200 ppb mercury = level in liquid the EPA classifies as hazardous waste. (http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/hazwaste/mercury/regs.htm#hazwaste)

25,000 ppb mercury = Concentration of mercury in multi-dose, Hepatitis B vaccine vials, administered at birth from 1991-2001 in the U.S.

50,000 ppb mercury = Concentration of mercury in multi-dose DTP and Haemophilus B vaccine vials, administered 8 times in the 1990’s to children at 2, 4, 6, 12 and 18 months of age. Current “preservative” level mercury in multi-dose flu, meningococcal and tetanus (7 and older) vaccines. This can be confirmed by simply analyzing the multi-dose vials.

Source: Michael Wagnitz has over 20 years experience evaluating materials for toxic metals. He currently works as a chemist in the toxicology section of a public health lab evaluating biological samples for lead and mercury.  

August 2002 – Mercury Products Guide: The Hidden Dangers of Mercury – A Resource Guide for Procurement Officers and Consumers about Mercury in Products and their Alternatives (pdf) – National Wildlife Federation  


The Mercury Vaccine Facts: 
A 0.1% solution of thimerosal is used. A 0.5 cc dose contains 25 mcg of mercury 
Water C.. 2 Parts per billion. 
Toxic Waste = 200 Parts per billion. 
EPA Allowable Fish = 700-1000 Parts per billion. 
0.5 cc Vaccine = 50,000 Parts per billion  
(—Dr. David Ayoub, M.D.) 




Engerix BTM [Glaxo Smithkline]

Recombivax BTM [Merck Frosst Canada])

have been available in Canada since these programs were initiated, containing thimerosal at a concentration of 0.005% or 50 µg/mL.  
A regular infant dose of 0.5 mL Engerix BTM contains 12.5 µg of ethylmercury, while a regular infant dose of 0.25 mL of Recombivax BTM contains 6.25 µg.  


Some single antigen acellular pertussis and conjugate H. influenzae vaccines, diphtheria-tetanus, and diphtheria- tetanus-acellular pertussis combination vaccines, all of which contain thimerosal in a concentration of 0.01%, and represent an exposure of 25 µg ethylmercury per 0.5 mL dose(11).  
Influenza vaccines that are licensed in Canada also contain 0.01% thimerosal.


-Health Canada