IPV and OPV History

1954 Francis Trials

The 1954 Francis Trials were unique. The trial was comprised of three groups of children: vaccinated, injected Placebo controlled, and observed placebo controlled. Observed meaning that observed children were not injected with anything, just simply watched. What was the outcome?

Keep in mind that 84 test areas in 11 states used the textbook model where the injected children were “blinded” so no-one knew who had been given the vaccine or the placebo (dummy) shot. 127 areas in 33 states used an observed control, where children either received the vaccine, or were just watched.  In other words, there was no placebo (dummy) injection given in 33 states. The eleven state trials were needed to define the vaccine, whereas the other state areas were added to maintain public support for the vaccine, because some states were annoyed that they might miss out. According to BMJ:


“If the Salk vaccine trials were to succeed, it was essential that they be a great national event, enlisting volunteers, doctors, and parents in one united effort that represented the culmination of 15 years of work and faith.”  

The trial was part medical and part public relations.  
According to the Journal of the American Medical Association :  

158 paralytic and non-paralytic cases in 422,473 vaccinated (33 states) or 0.04%

705 paralytic and non-paralytic cases from 1,407,173 controls (33 states) or 0.05%  
71 paralytic cases out of 422,643 receiving vaccine or 0.02%  

614 paralytic cases out of 1,407,173 controls or 0.04%  
42 non-paralytic cases out of 422,643 vaccinated or 0.01%

136 non paralytic cases out of 1,407,173 controls or 0.01%  

The comparative percentage figures (11 states): 

33 paralytic cases out of 200,745 SALK vaccinated children or 0.02%  

115 paralytic cases out of 201,229 dummy injections or 0.06%

122 paralytic cases out of 347,262 observed (no injections) children or 0.04%  

The most useful finding is that in calculating the efficacy figures, the no injection children were missed out (0.4%). No account was taken of the provocation polio clearly evident amongst the placebo vaccinated children. Efficacy was calculated by comparing the 0.06% from the placebo (dummy) injected, with the 0.02% from the vaccinated.


Dr.Francis might even have had some reservations, because he said:  
“…from these data is it not possible to select a single value giving numerical expression in a complete sense to the effectiveness of the vaccine as a total experience – it may be ‘suggested’ that vaccination was 80 – 90 percent effective.”  


 This figure was given by comparing the attack rate of 41 cases of polio per 100,000 vaccinated children with 81 cases of polio per 100,000 placebo injected children. However, if you compare 41 cases per 100,000 vaccinated children, with 54 cases per 100,000 “observed” children, the vaccine only reaches a 13% margin of effectiveness.  
A more interesting comparison is this based on the official U.S. figures:  
37,000 cases of polio in the remaining 163,000,000 population of the U.S. or 0.023%.  
The Francis Trials showed 1,013 cases in 1,829,916 subjects, or 0.055%.  
So it works out this way:
The Francis Trial resulted in 1 case of diagnosed polio for every 1,806 people in the study.  The rest of the untouched USA had 1 case of diagnosed polio for every 4,406 people in the country.  
Now, if you just compared the vaccinated, with the rest of USA:  
33 paralytic cases out of 200,745 SALK vaccinated children or 0.02%
37,000 cases of polio in the remaining 163,000,000 population of the USA, or.0.023%
The vaccine efficacy of the vaccination group was only 0.003% greater than that of untouched U.S.  This vaccine was the touted ‘success’ that saved the world from Polio?
Look at what some of the newspapers reported:
United Press :  
33 paralytic cases out of 460,000 vaccinated or 0.001%  
115 paralytic cases out of 1,369,916 controls or 0.001%  
425 combined cases (paralytic and non paralytic) out of 749,236 in 11 states or  0.05%  
585 combined cases (paralytic and non-paralytic) out of 1,080,680 in 33 states or 0.05%  
Associated Press :  
71 paralytic cases out of 440,00 vaccinated or 0.02%  
445 paralytic cases out of 1,400,000 controls or 0.03%  
42 non-paralytic cases out of 440,000 receiving vaccine or 0.01%  
305 non-paralytic cases out of 1,400,000 controls or 0.02%  
Time Magazine :  
57 combined cases of polio out of 440,000 receiving vaccine or 0.013%  
142 combined cases of polio out of 210,000 dummy injections or 0.07%  
664 combined cases of polio out of 1,180,000 controls or 0.06%  
27,000 blood samples using 2,000,000 test tubes or (74 tubes/B. sample)  
Numerically, the results are the same.  Yet the Time stated that “still more encouraging statistically, the unvaccinated had 3 ½ times as many paralytic cases” The problem being that this was a 3 to one ratio, when according to their own figures, 440,000 were vaccinated, and 1,390,000 were not a 3-1 ratio.   The public bought it and the vaccine was the ‘miracle’.


 After polio, a new condition now causes crippling pains… and doctors can’t treat it


Mary is one of around 120,000 Britons who suffer from post-polio syndrome. Despite the numbers affected, very few doctors know much about it.

They’ve assumed, like most of us, that as the polio virus itself has now been eradicated in this country, it is a health concern of the past.

But the long-term effects of the disease — rife in the UK in the Fifties — can be as debilitating as the disease in its early stages.

Post-polio syndrome is the name for a collection of incurable symptoms — including muscle wastage, muscle and joint pain, and mental and physical fatigue — common to many who have suffered from the full-blown disease.

When the symptoms recur, it may be 20-40 years after the initial disease. Circulation may be impaired and breathing can become difficult due to weakening chest muscles.

Another possible cause is inflammation in the nerve cells, brought on by the immune system’s response to the original infection.

Sometimes it can be caused by a complication of the earlier polio — for example, the spine may have been left twisted, which causes premature ageing of the vertebrae.

As a result, up to 70 per cent of post-polio syndrome sufferers live in constant pain, according to a survey soon to be published by the British Polio Fellowship, a charity set up to support people with polio or post-polio syndrome.

The complication in Mary’s case was that she wasn’t officially diagnosed with polio as a child.

She was nine when she contracted a mystery virus that had caused a high temperature, a stiff neck, an aching head and partially paralysed her left side — all classic symptoms of polio.  




OPV works fairly well. IPV may protect against the virus invading your central nervous system and causing paralysis. But it does nothing to prevent gut infection.  No one really knows how well IPV works to prevent paralytic polio either. The IPOL package insert lists original Salk data for its effectiveness information. OPV is an oral vaccine that’s live. It’s living, replicating polio that was adapted to animal tissue for a while, but then it evolved and “forgot” how to cross over from the gut to the brain in humans.



ALL of the original IPV effectiveness stats were an illusion. During the clinical trials, they injected everyone with an ineffective dose of live, unattenuated, wild polio. When the children were paralyzed, they made excuses and counted the children as unvaccinated. The manufacturers then figured out that Salks’ formalin inactivation method didn’t work. They then ‘cooked’ the viruses longer, and diluted the shot.  This resulted in “antibody mediated enhancement” http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/301notes4b.html in the vaccinated. The vaccinated children fared worse when they were exposed to the virus later. All killed virus vaccines run this risk. If the viral load you inject someone with isn’t high enough, you’ll make people half-immune. Since they knew something was wrong, they changed the diagnostic criteria to artificially drive the numbers down for a time, while they hurriedly got an OPV approved.  The IPV we use today is manufactured in a different way, so you get more dead viruses per dose than there was in the original IPV. However, the new one hasn’t really been tested for effectiveness. Its effectiveness is simply an elaborate assumption with a little circumstantial evidence.


Polio Statistics

 The 1955, Journal of American Statistical Assn 50: 1005- 1013, stated of the Francis report:


59% of the trial was worthless because of lack of adequate controls. The remaining 41% may have been alright, but contains internal evidence of bias in favour of the vaccinated.


 The initial decision (later changed) to vaccinate all willing second graders and to use the non-volunteer second graders and all first and third-grade children as un-inoculated controls nearly invalidated the 1954 trials…” Placebo-inoculated volunteers experienced significantly more disease than did age-comparable unvaccinated non-volunteers”


A reviewer, Mr. Brownlee, also stated that the National Foundation had proclaimed gamma globulin effective after similar trials, but it had been proven useless later.

In BMJ, April 30, 1955, it stated about the Francis Report, that large sections of the trial were subject to doubtful procedures and open to criticism; for instance:


1) Inoculated children in one large section were not the same age as the un-inoculated controls.
2) Children to be inoculated were those whose parents agreed to have it done. It is recognized amongst statisticians involved in similar assessments that the social position and care in volunteer families are usually superior to that in controls.


In an article in Scope Weekly, January 21, 1959, page 4, it cited studies illustrating the unpredictable immune response of children given a full series of Salk inoculations. Five months after the third dose, 44% were without demonstrable antibody for Type 1 poliovirus, while 53% were without type 3. In terms of serum levels sufficient to yield antibody in nasopharyngeal excretions, inadequate titers were found in 78% for Type 1, and 84% for Type 3. 
In the Journal of the American Medical Association, Volume 163, No 2, January 12, 1957 stated that:


An analysis of the figures (Salk Polio Vaccine) shows that the incident of paralytic cases among the vaccinated children who had poliomyelitis was 40% as compared with 44% among the unvaccinated children.


The statistics from the Polio Surveillance Units stats are now classified. But what they show is that:
1955 there were 7,886 cases of paralytic polio, 15% of them, were vaccinated. 
In 1956, 7210 paralytic cases, 16% vaccinated. Non paralytic polio, 6027 cases, 32% vaccinated. 
1957, 2172 cases paralytic polio, 30% vaccinated, 2,603 non paralytic polio, 54% vaccinated. 
In 1958, 3122 paralytic polio cases, 33% vaccinated. 
In the
medical literature, it states that only 36% of USA’s population had been vaccinated with the first 3 primary doses. Reviews of Infectious Diseases, Volume 2, No 2, March – April 1980, pages 277-281 ‘Eradication of Poliomyelitis in the United States: A commentary on the Salk Reviews’ by Dr. John P. Fox. Notice that it was also required that booster doses be given every year. The article also pointed out that most of the available evidence for antibody persistence after either IPV or OPV is of questionable validity.
In 1959, 5,594 paralytic polio cases 50%+ cases vaccinated which equals 3726 cases, of which 928 had had three or more doses.
In 1960, 2,545 paralytic polio cases, 210 deaths, 77% fully vaccinated with four doses. 


In 1956, Vaccine satellite cases were dropped. The Polio Surveillance Units didn’t accept these as vaccine related and they were listed under unvaccinated. In 1960, with the introduction of Sabin vaccine, satellite cases were once again reported and classified as vaccine induced. In 1957 the UPSR Supplement, no 15, was the first recommendation that no longer should Polio which was caused by other agents, such as echoviruses, coxsackie viruses or any other cause other than polio virus, be listed under polio. In order to be defined as polio, the patient not only had to have the virus, but also had to have residual paralysis 60 days later. 
In 1958, the CDC formally adopted the “Best available paralytic poliomyelitis case count” or BAPPCC.


“Cases must be clinically and epidemiologically compatible with poliomyelitis, must have resulted in paralysis, and must have a residual neurological deficit 60 days after onset of initial symptoms. .. the BAPPCC does not include cases of nonparalytic poliomyelitis, of those in which paralysis is more transient. The original purpose of developing these criteria was to omit cases possibly due to enteroviruses other than polioviruses.”


“Several generations of transmission of poliovirus can occur after importation since most infections are subclinical.”….”the poliovirus isolated from a patient with paralytic disease may not always be the virus causing the patient’s disease.” (Lancet, December 8. 1984 pages 1315 – 1317, “Poliomeylitis” by Robert J. Kim-Farley et al)


The definition changes were so radical, that many doctors publicly stated in medical journals, that it effectively eliminated 90% of what had previous been accepted as paralytic polio. 

In 1973 Lancet 2: 899 – 900 (1973) Red D et al, “Poliomyelitis – A gap in immunity?” found that only 49% of nursery school children studied had antibody to all three types, and 54% of the children with a history of immunization lacked any immunity at all. 
In 1977, Lancet 2: 1078 “Protection against polio”, Codd A and White E, found that among children 1 – 5 years of age, only 43% had antibody to all three types, and 25% lacked antibody to any. Among those 5 – 19 years, 40% had antibody to all three types, and 17% had no antibodies to anything. In all adult age groups, except those 30 – 39, at least 15% entirely lacked polio antibodies, and the proportion of people with antibodies to all three types ranged from just under or just over 50%. 

n the American Journal of Public Health, Volume 26, 147, 1936 by M. Brodie, it showed that only 0.6% of all children in the age group 1 – 10, showing no antibodies, would ever came down with polio even when the disease was present in epidemic proportions. 



 In the Journal of Experimental Medicine, 1958, 108:605 – 616, by Dalldorf and Weigand, it showed that in monkeys, poliomyelitis may result from simultaneous infections with an attenuated poliovirus and polio-like virus, such as a coxsackie virus. Neither virus alone induced paralysis, but together they did.  


 “In about 95 percent of polio cases, infection from the polio virus causes no symptoms or serious effects. In about 5 percent of cases, the polio virus manifests in a mild form (abortive polio) with flu-like symptoms, in a non-paralytic form (aseptic meningitis) or in a severe form called paralytic polio. People who have minor or non-paralytic forms recover completely. …” 

Before the polio vaccine, there was very little viral polio. There was paralysis, but its cause was not a polio virus but DDT pesticide poisoning. The chemical that likely poisoned FDR while swimming in a lake in upstate NY. Where DDT was produced, you also saw that it was exactly the region where the epidemic was.  DDT was banned at the same time the polio vaccine was introduced, making the vaccine seem as though it were the cure of the disease. With the introduction of the OPV we created the most crippling viral polio ever. This tells the story.   

 In Human Genome Research and Society Proceedings of the Second International Bioethics Seminar in Fukui, 20-21 March, 1992. From pp. 205-210,Director, NINDS, National Institutes of Health, USA:

In most infections only a rare individual becomes ill or suffers rare complications, and that individual may be genetically predetermined, it usually is. For example, HTLV-1 infects 1-2 million Japanese, but only one in over a thousand gets adult advanced T cell leukemia after 40 years, and fortunately only about one in a thousand gets HAM, HTLV-1 associated myolopophy. Those unfortunate rare individuals are the problem, not the problem of the innocuous, or carriers, the other one thousand who die without ever knowing that they had it, and having no ill effect. The same can be said for poliomyelitis, where it takes 1,000 infected cases in order to induce a paralysis, the others don’t know they were infected.

Dr. Vivian Wyatt talked about genetic predetermination with regard to Polio, which can be shown in families, but Dr. Sandler showed that weakness could be fixed with diet. 


Medical Citations
Epidemiology of poliomyelitis: Natahnson et al 1979, American Journal of Epidemiology, 110(6): 672-692.



 An  introduction to the enigmas surrounding the appearance and disappearance of paralytic polio. These questions are still being debated today. The basic point is this: polio virus has been around forever yet epidemics of paralysis have only been around since the late 19th century. This is not natural evolution. 95% of polio cases occur without symptoms and the rest have only a mild fever except for that tiny fraction of 1% where the virus penetrates the blood-brain barrier and causes paralysis.

Provocation poliomyelitis: Wyatt 1981, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 55:543-557.

 This discusses the many scientists from 1914-1950 who observed the phenomenon that injections can cause outbreaks of polio. Most of these papers observed that paralysis correlated to the limb that was injected and then spread from there. 

Strebel et al 1995, The New England Journal of Medicine, 332(8):500-506.


Reviews more current literature and adds some of its own observations. They point out that intramuscular injection within 30 days of immunization with oral polio vaccine increases the risk of vaccine-induced paralysis. At least 86% of paralysis cases were caused by injection and the higher number of injections correlated to higher frequency of paralysis cases. 

In the Indian Journal of Pediatrics, Special Supplement, January-February 1998; Volume 65: Number 1, ‘Poliomyelitis in India, Past, present and Future’ by H.V. Wyatt. As early as 29 June, 1990, the Indian medical profession, and politicians knew that the huge increase of polio in India in the previous 60 years, for which he had evidence, was due to unsterile injections which he predicted would lead to an enormous political row. When I asked him to clarify that, he wrote back and described one study in Pondicherry they had just finished:

Our work shows that injections almost certainly cause three quarters of the 200,000 cases of polio each year in India – unnecessary injections as well as DPT causing provocation paralysis, given to children with diarrhoea, or fever – given unsertile , of unsuitable drugs, for gain.

 The WHO, have several papers “The buts and bolts of Immunization, and the 11-13 June 1997 SAGE report, which back this up.
The Sage Report:

3.3 Injection safety 
Information suppled to WHO and UNICEF consistently highlights widespread unsterile injection practices… which can result in infectious complication such as the transmission of blood-born pathogens… the community at large is at risk when injection equipment is not safely disposed of, and because of its commercial value, is reused, sold, or recycles. Alarmingly, this situation is widely tolerated by health management…previous attempt by EPI to raise health officials’ awareness of the importance of injection safety have been met with skepticism, or, at best, noncommittal acknowledgement that “something should be done.” The problem however, is so broad and involved so many participants in the public and the private health sectors that no solution has so far been found.”


There is a need to determine what role EPI should play in raising awareness and improving the quality and safety of the injections indespensable for the deisease control initiative it promotes. Can this challenge be met by focussing on the safety of immunisation inections alone? Should EPI take a more proactive role in promoting safe injections throughout the health sector and lead a coordinated and concerted drive for safer injections?…GPV should pursue the development and implementation of technologies for safe injection including injection devices and disposal systems…

 During the time of the Salk vaccine, a study said this:

“During the Salk vaccine difficulties of the 50’s and 60’s an epidemiologist at New York State health Department concluded that if each infant had to travel two miles to get a shot there would be more disabilities caused by vehicle accidents than what the Salk vaccine itself would have prevented, to say nothing of therapeutic misadventures. (Letter to the New York Times, June 21, 1996, by Dr Herbert Ratner.)


Salk And Sabin
Dr. Jonas Salk never developed his vaccine at all. He had the idea, but did none of the work. Dr. Bennett, who used to work with Dr. Jo Smadel at Walter Reed, left there because Jonas Salk, who was a Professor at the University of Pittsburg, offered him a job of joining him in making the first successful polio vaccine. His idea for the vaccine was simple but extreme; to just grow the virus, and inactivate it with formalin. This by the way was the same idea that he had for the AIDS vaccine. Dr Bennett did all the work and the theory had a fatal flaw. Formalin doesn’t inactivate in a straight line, but Salk thought it did. Right from the start, the media, the politicians, etc, acclaimed Salk as the Savoir and he took all the credit for work he had never done. He refused to acknowledge that Dr. Bennett had made the vaccine, not him, which led to a nasty feud and Dr. Bennett committed suicide. 
By 1956 and until the Sabin vaccine was used, doctors who tested every single batch of the vaccine for the FDA (then the DBS) found every single batch, not just the Cutter batch, was live. The vaccine was consistently paralyzing the monkeys, with every batch. The solution of the DBS was to dilute down the vaccine, so that there was less likelihood of live virus causing problems. This caused a further problem, that the already low efficacy became even lower still. But Salk thought that it was do-able.  This was to never become public knowledge.  The illusion in the public’s mind was that the Salk vaccine would solve the polio problem at all costs and would continue. That situation existed right up until the Sabin vaccine was introduced. Even though they diluted the vaccine, the testing consistently paralyzed the monkeys.  
When thing had been going wonderfully for Salk, he was happy taking the glory.  When things went bad, and the inactivation was shown to not work, first he blamed Cutter, and all the laboratories, insisting they had followed his instructions. It took another year to go back over all the manufacturers’ records and show that they had indeed followed his instructions, and that the only possible reasons were that his instructions were incorrect. He then privately, tried to  blame Dr. Bennett. Debate raged about whether the Salk vaccine was worth continuing with. Real debate started after a letter in JAMA, volume 163, No 2, January 12, 1957 reported that in England the analysis of the use of the U.S. made Salk Vaccine in England showed that the incidence of paralytic polio in the vaccinated was 40% compared to 44% in the unvaccinated children. 
Time Magazine, January 19, 1959 reporting on the “Scientific Symposium on Poliomyelitis Vaccine’  held at University of Michigan School of Public Health stated that much of the material used in about 200 million United States inoculation “has been no good”. 
Dr. Albert Sabin (Scope Weekly, page 4 January 21 1959) cited studies illustrating the unpredictable immune response of children to a full series of four Salk vaccines. Five months after the third dose, 44% were without demonstrable antibody for Type 1 poliovirus, while 53% were without Type III. In terms of serum levels sufficient to yield antibody in nasopharyngeal excretions, inadequate titers were found in 78% for Type 1 and 84% for Type III.  
Dr. Salk’s response to that (Medical News Page 2, January 28 1959) was to say that the failure of his vaccine to date was due to “individually defective immuno-mechanisms, a non-bloodstream route of virus spread, or waning immunity.” 
In 1958, Dr. Bernice Eddy noticed that there was something in the Salk vaccine which was having some nasty effects on all her laboratory animals, and caused vacuolation in culture medium. http://www.ghettodriveby.com/vacuolation/. She became very concerned about what that virus did with the immune systems of animals.  They knew by this time, that many monkey viruses had been found in the Salk vaccine, and they were also just starting to look into another called Mason Pfizer Monkey virus (which causes AIDS in macaque monkeys which it does not originate from). Although she did not know it at the time, the principle virus she was seeing was the effects of SV40.

Bernice Eddy was working with certain batch numbers of the vaccine, which caused greater problems, than other batches. One doctor in Illinois was getting very worried about the Salk vaccine. He took it upon himself to keep some of those batches under correct storage, and for long term storage. What concerned him was that certain batches of the vaccine were causing clusters of leukemia. It turned out that these batches of the vaccine were the same batches as the ones Bernice Eddy was worried about. 
This started to worry many people, who wanted to know what this thing was that caused vacuolation, why were these animals getting tumors, why did they become immunosuppressed, and why was it that hamsters had unusual symptoms (Pg. 60 in Bernice Eddy’s 1969 monograph on Polyoma Virus) which now we call some sort of AIDS. Salk simply told everyone that Bernice Eddy was wrong; the “thing” couldn’t be defined, so it wasn’t there. Salk’s colleagues were fed up with Salk at this point and permanently and privately “disowned” him. However, they were in a bind as to what to do with this useless vaccine, so most of the support and impetus was then put behind Sabin. That further infuriated Salk, and led to him setting up the Salk Institute.
SV40 was not defined until the 1960’s, and by that time, over 100 different monkey viruses had been indentified from the supernatant from the Salk vaccine. By 1968, 149 monkey viruses in the polio vaccine had been identified.  Europe and the U.K. were very slow to use the Salk vaccine. The reason was that European scientists were warned that there was something unknown and not right with the vaccine. Furthermore, their tests had also shown that the Salk vaccine sent to Europe was in fact live. They decided to develop their own inactivated vaccines using different base strains, and not using the straight line formalin theory. Their vaccines were not ready for release until the end of the 50’s, and ironically, the rates of polio in Europe fell at identical rates to that of USA. But, they also adopted all the sequential redefinitions of polio as well, so in relation, all the graphs are pretty much identical.  The Europe graphs are actually very useful. One question to ask the medical establishment is why polio dropped to the same numbers in Europe, without a vaccine, as it did in U.S. with a vaccine. 
Sabin actually did some serious work. He attenuated type 2 and 3 himself, and Dr. Lee developed the type one vaccine. Sabin put all three together, but had the decency to given the credit for the type 1 to Dr. Lee. Unfortunately, Sabin could not identify the virus we now know as SV 40 either.  It remained in some batches of the oral vaccine until the mid 1960’s, and now there is suspicion that mutants of it, have been in more recent vaccine since then. The Sabin vaccine did work, but unfortunately has carried other and future different dangers, not only to us, but to our children.  
In 1990, the Illinois doctor handed over some vials of the Salk vaccine to a Dr. Robert Bohanon, a molecular virologist, who found that the vials contained not only SV40, but also the simian immunodeficiency virus, which was unknown until the end of the 1980’s. 
An entry in the Federal Register, Volume 49, No 107, Friday, June 1 1964, Rules and Regulations (pertaining to polio vaccine manufacture and previous technical deficiencies) where it states on page 23007:

“…any possible doubts, whether or not well founded, about the safety of the vaccine cannot be allowed to exist in view of the need to assure that the vaccine will continue to be used to the maximum extent consistent with the nation’s public health objectives”

The link between asbestosis cancer and SV40 which was also discovered in 1990 by Dr. Michael Carbone, Assistant Professor of Pathology at Loyola University in Chicago, which has been confirmed by Dr. Fernanda Martini of the Institute of Histology and General Embryology in Italy.  
This work showed that SV40 is found in a variety of brain tumors including 85% of choriod plexus papillomas, in 73% of ependymomas, in 46% of astrocytomas, in 50% of glioblastomas, and in 14% of meningiomas. Furthermore, the nature of SV40 is that it is a stealth virus, and a piggy back virus. This was confirmed in the 1960’s when SV40 was found to have hybridized with adenovirus, which formed a new virus and was undetectable to SV40 tests. It was this very feature of the SV40 virus that made it the key virus which they used to start up bioengineering and genetic modification laboratories. Many different SV40 hybrid viruses had been identified from brain tumors in the mid 1970’s and published in various cancer monographs at the time. 
SV40 has appeared in 61% of all new cancer patients too young to have received the vaccines. So further studies were done, which found in the U.S. that SV40 is routinely found in 23% of blood samples, and 45% of sperm samples, proving that it is transmitted both horizontally and vertically. We also know, according to work published by Dr. Howard Strickler, National Institute of Health in Bethesda, Maryland that people in Massachusetts and Illinois who received indentified lot numbers known to be SV40 contaminated are now demonstrating ten times the rate of osteosarcoma bone tumors than those who received vaccine free of the SV 40 virus. Work published by Professor Mauro Tognon stated that SV40 is one reason for the 30% increase in brain tumors in the U.S. over the past 25 years. Being that not all batches had SV40 in them, that is a large increase.  Dr. Keerti Shah, gave a presentation at National Clarion Hotel Arlington Virginia in May 1988. At his talk called “A review of the circumstances and consequences of simian Virus 40 contamination of human vaccines“, some French scientists stated that with using new technology, they had retested the 1950-60’s polio vaccines and found that many of the vials had higher concentrations of SV40 than poliovirus, and much higher rates than the earlier technology had shown. The rates of polio had remained the same, but rate of detection of SV40, had increased dramatically owning to better “sensitivity” of the newer tests. 
What does SV40 do exactly in order to cause cancer? It switches off a protein that protects cells from becoming malignant. It is not cancer-type specific, but cell function specific. Not everyone who is infected with SV40 will get cancer. A variety of assaults are usually required on the immune system to combine to trigger malignancy. Children are more vulnerable to any modifying factors, because they are growing, their immune systems are slightly different than adults, and their hormonal balance, which has implications for the immune system, is different. It is now thought that it was the function of the SV40 in switching off the protein that protects cells from becoming malignant, in children who had potential to develop leukemia, which caused the clusters of leukemia at the time, and according to some doctors has been responsible for the explosion in childhood leukemia since that time.  

Some of the documentation that documents much of the suppressed information, can be researched and found in a case in the United States Claims Court of the Special Masters, Diane Lynn Armbrust Mosley, petitioner vs. Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services, No. 91-0201V, dated October 1, 1992. 





  The Salk and Sabin vaccines continued:
On April 12, 1955 The Foundation for Infantile Paralysis organized a meeting at Ann Arbor Michigan, at which Dr. Jonas Salk and Dr. Thomas Francis, told the world that the Salk vaccine was safe, potent and efficient. Nearly every American newspaper declared that Dr. Salk had abolished poliomyelitis. Only 13 days after the vaccine had been acclaimed by the American Press as one of the greatest medical discoveries of the century, came the first news of disaster. By June 23rd there had been 168 confirmed cases of poliomyelitis in the vaccinated, 6 deaths, and 149 cases amongst the contacts. 
In JAMA, 1935, 105; 2; 152 had an article from a Dr. J. P Leake, then medical director of the United States Public Health Services, in which he reported 12 cases of poliomyelitis in children who had been vaccinated with a chemically treated anti-poliomyelitis vaccine (Kolmer vaccine and Brodie vaccine the later being inactivated the same way as Salk’s vaccine), he stated “Many physicians will feel that these cases make undesirable the further use of poliomyelitis virus for human vaccination at present.” The media said it was only in six batches, but a copy of United States Claims Court of the Special Masters, Diane Lynn Armbrust Mosley, petitioner vs. Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services, No. 91-0201V, dated October 1, 1992 proves that every single vaccine contained live virus, and that the myths surrounding that, and which are  perpetuated in recent books, simply are not true.  
In the previous year, six vaccine manufacturers had orders from the Foundation for Infantile Paralysis to manufacture enough vaccine to inoculate 9 million children and pregnant women. Two hours after the announcement at Ann Arbor the U.S. government licenced the vaccine and released it for distribution to all the states that agreed to use it. The public was ready and waiting. The British were more sober saying in the Lancet, April 23, 1955, page 864: 

Even before details of the elaborate and, I believe, careful experimental work had been presented to any competent scientific society, television, radio, banner press headlines, and four complete pages of the New York Times have informed the public of its wonders… Already anxious parents are demanding the vaccine for their children and worried administrators are requesting Presidential action to ensure its fair distribution. It is difficult for laymen here to see the risks of poliomyelitis in their correct perspective … The risks of a child being killed or maimed by car accidents is incomparably greater.” 

In England on B.B.C. (London Calling, June 16, 1955) Dr. F. Kingsley Sanders stated:

“There is still some doubt whether universal vaccination  for that is what it would have to be – is the best way of preventing polio in the long run….to protect each individual who actually needs protection we must vaccinate a very large number who would never have become paralyzed. In the American trial the figures show that it would be necessary to vaccinate nearly 4,000 individuals to protect each potential paralytic. And in a European country such as Britain where the overall paralytic rate is lower than in the USA, even larger numbers of vaccinations would be necessary to protect each vulnerable individual. Not only would the cost of such a program be very great, but among the 4,000 vaccinated we might expect sixteen reactions to inoculation.” 

In the British Medical Journal, March 13, 1954, pg 636,  Dr. McHammon gave some startling figures. He stated that even in an epidemic area it would be necessary to inoculate 11,000 children to prevent one fatal or paralytic case, and in a non-epidemic area perhaps 50,000. 
The actual risk figures from the Registrar General for the years 1943 – 1953 showed that the monthly attack rate in Britain was 6 per million. In Public Health March 1955 Dr. Dennis H Geffen OBE., MD., DPH, said “We are apt to forget that poliomyelitis is the least serious of all infections diseases, with the exception of that one complication or extension of the disease which destroys motor cells in the brain and spinal cord and causes paralysis. Apart from this it appears to be a mild infection lasting a few days, the symptoms of which are probably less serious than a cold in the head and from which recover is complete and immunity lasting. If we could be sure that an individual contracting poliomyelitis would not become paralyzed then there might be much to be said for spreading the disease in order that a community might develop natural immunity.” 
Comment from Dr. C G Learoyd, MRCS, LRCP in Medical World February 1954: 

“In the USA they have tried and are trying huge experiments with gamma-globulin and various vaccines. There are definite drawbacks to mass injections and there have been some nasty accidents; also there is something rather unconvincing about immunizing a one in a thousand chance. For God’s sake – and I say that reverently, – lets try the simple things thoroughly first.” 

The Sabin vaccine  did what it was designed to do, which was to stop the spread of the wild virus in the community by interfering with its spread, and produce gut immunity in a baby, before anything else could go wrong which might cause the baby to get polio. So if you vaccinate a baby before it starts eating a sad diet, or have a tonsillectomy, other injections, etc., it’s a win-win. However, there has been a trade-off which is not talked about. The people who were vulnerable then, are still vulnerable now, but to something else, maybe not polio. 
If you make the decision to use the vaccine today, you aren’t in the same situation they were in 1955. Today, they say the IPV is properly inactivated, and there is no other spread of polio virus which the CDC currently knows of, or is admitting to. That doesn’t mean there isn’t. What is of interest is that parents who had major reactions to polio vaccines; their  children have had some major reactions to Neisseria Meningitis vaccines.  So what is the connection? Something genetic, some passed down “weakness” or that 1 in a thousand thing?
You can get very significant reversion when using OPV between the mouth and the anus of the original recipient, which is why direct VAPP exists.  Reversion depends to a degree on the gut flora competition of the recipient, and their immunocompetence.  Furthermore if you give OPV to babies with immunodeficiencies, those babies can spill out constantly mutating virus for over a year, and the virus they spill out in the first month, will be genetically quite different than the virus in the last month. They are basically ‘walking laboratory incubators’.
MONDAY, 27 JANUARY, 1997  

DR. RATNER: I’m Herbert Ratner, the former Health Officer of Oak Park, Illinois, and the announcement was made April the 12, 1955, Tommy Vance has reported that the vaccine was safe and effective. And within a few days the National Foundation had this vaccine — I won’t go into the past history of that vaccine — but it was delivered throughout the United States so that every 1st and 2nd grader, as a free gift of that vaccine — every 1st and 2nd grader — and in the next week or two, that vaccine was given to every 1st and 2nd grader.  
I think Oak Park was probably the only one who decided to sit down that free gift, vaccination gift, just to see how things were going along. There were other reasons, too. But I decided that before parents signed an authorization slip, which makes it possible to get the vaccine, that I should make available to them — which I did in 11 talks that week — be willing to answer questions that they had in terms of the risk of polio that summer, etc.  
By just taking a neutral position at that time, you had all the pressure from the Foundation to get that vaccine going because of an impending summer polio epidemic — the usual summer epidemic — and that was the only thought in people’s minds: how fast, how well do mothers love their children? They didn’t rush to get the vaccine, and things like that.  
And in the midst of my talks — I had two days of my talks — my community got very upset that where everybody else was giving the vaccine, we were holding out. And it caused quite a consternation in the Chicago area. It got to the science — Art Snider who was the Science writer for one of the major newspapers — he said Herb, what’s going on there? I said, well come out and listen to my talk, etc.  
I have the talk on Tuesday and Wednesday he called me up and said, you’re more right than you know. Because they just got the first report of the Cutter vaccine situation where six cases in San Francisco and one in Chicago area, both from the same manufacturer, both from the same lot number, and we were in consternation three.  
I had to postpone — actually, I was about the only one in the country that was in a position of not having anybody in my community immunized, and so I could sit it out. And I made one appointment to use the vaccine, to give that, give to their parents — one week later or two weeks later, whatever it was — and after that, the Cutter situation got worse.  
And the local paper, as a result, had a story, checked around, in which they thought I had a very unique opinion that I hadn’t given the vaccine.  
MODERATOR FRIED: I think we’re going to discuss the vaccines more tomorrow. I mean, this is mainly for the techniques, so —  
DR. RATNER: Can I have about a minute more?  
MODERATOR FRIED: One minute.  
DR. RATNER: Yes. Keep up my same thought. The day that the local paper came out with the backing of all of the — everybody in the community, kind of — Seeley, the Surgeon General, called up the program because he wanted to make a safe vaccine safer was his exact terms.  
They had to stop that thing because of the difficulty of the vaccine. And if all of you knew the difficulties they had with the Salk vaccine, whose position on inactivation turned out to be false — universally accepted as false — and how they kept packing it up and packing it up and packing it up, and they had to keep the program going and going.  But I’m telling you that every 1st and 2nd grade child in the United States, which represented about 85 or 90 percent, got a vaccine which had live polio viruses in it, definitely established, and at that time they found out that the SV40 was —  
DR. RATNER: Just one sentence, please. That the SV40 was not activated, and so that meant that there was SV40 in all of the vaccines around the country, and that was confirmed by — this is my last sentence — that was confirmed by anybody who focused epidemiologically. There were cases popping up all over the States — and this was confirmed by the German Health Ministry who were doing the same thing in Germany — that polio virus was being distributed. And if you people could see —  
MODERATOR FRIED: I think I have to stop you, because we —  
DR. RATNER: Could I just have a half-a-sentence?  
MODERATOR FRIED: You’ve had a half-a-sentence.  
DR. RATNER: If you people sit here and say that the vaccine didn’t pass on polio or SV40, you don’t know what happened in those times. And I’m talking about 1955, for the next ten years or more. It’s strange to me, as an epidemiologist working right on the field, to hear people somehow deny the vaccine — one more sentence, please.  
Harry Francis was attacked right after his report —  
MODERATOR FRIED: I think — why don’t you save this for tomorrow?  

What about other countries? When the French re-tested their polio vaccine, it had 40 times the level of SV40 in it than previously thought, and the level of SV40 was HIGHER than the level of polio virus. Connaught only admitted in 1973 that the New Zealand polio vaccine which they provided had anywhere between 150 – 1700 TCD-50 of SV40 in every dose. That is the highest known contamination level of any where in the world.  


“The Kenny Concept of Infantile Paralysis and its treatment” by Dr John. F. Pohl, Bruce Publishing Company, Minneapolis, 1943. 
Two books by Sister Kenny are “And they shall Walk” and “My battle and Victory”. 
“Over my dead body” by Jean Opie.
“Diet Prevents Polio” Dr Benjamin P Sandler, Lee Foundation, 1951. 
“Low Blood sugar and You” by Drs Carlton Frederick and Herman Goodman. 
“Polio, the American Story” by Oshinsky. 
“The Polio Paradox” by Richard L. Bruno.
‘The Virus and the Vaccine’ by Debbi Bookchin and Jim Schumacher.