Neuropsychological Performance 10 Years After Immunization in Infancy With Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines

Neuropsychological Performance 10 Years After Immunization in Infancy With Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines

PEDIATRICS Vol. 123 No. 2 February 2009, pp. 475-482

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE. Thimerosal, a mercury compound used as a preservative in vaccines administered during infancy, has been suspected to affect neuropsychological development. We compared the neuropsychological performance, 10 years after vaccination, of 2 groups of children exposed randomly to different amounts of thimerosal through immunization.

METHODS. Children who were enrolled in an efficacy trial of pertussis vaccines in 1992–1993 were contacted in 2003. Two groups of children were identified, according to thimerosal content in vaccines assigned randomly in the first year of life (cumulative ethylmercury intake of 62.5 or 137.5 µg), and were compared with respect to neuropsychological outcomes. Eleven standardized neuropsychological tests, for a total of 24 outcomes, were administered to children during school hours. Mean scores of neuropsychological tests in the domains of memory and learning, attention, executive functions, visuospatial functions, language, and motor skills were compared according to thimerosal exposure and gender. Standard regression coefficients obtained through multivariate linear regression analyses were used as a measure of effect.

RESULTS. Nearly 70% of the invited subjects participated in the neuropsychological assessment (N = 1403). Among the 24 neuropsychological outcomes that were evaluated, only 2 were significantly associated with thimerosal exposure. Girls with higher thimerosal intake had lower mean scores in the finger-tapping test with the dominant hand and in the Boston Naming Test.

CONCLUSIONS. Given the large number of statistical comparisons performed, the few associations found between thimerosal exposure and neuropsychological development might be attributable to chance. The associations found, although statistically significant, were based on small differences in mean test scores, and their clinical relevance remains to be determined.

 

Responses:

Il Mercurio and the AAP

An Addendum to February’s “First Read”

An Addendum to February’s “First Read”

It has been brought to my attention that in the study on thimerosal briefly highlighted below, I noted that groups did or did not get thimerosal and had similar results in terms of neuropsychological developmental outcomes. Reading of this study will indicate that both groups studied actually did have thimerosal in their vaccines, one group having 62.5 micrograms cumulative intake and the other 137.5 micrograms cumulative intake. While the amount of thimerosal in the lower group studied in Italy is less (according to the author of this study Dr. Tozzi) than the small amounts used in this country, I do want to correctly indicate there was no group studied that received no thimerosal whatsoever in their vaccines. The results of this study suggesting essentially minimal (if any) differences in developmental outcomes remains as stated–although a limitation as noted by Dr. Tozzi is that there was no comparison group with zero exposure to thimerosal. I appreciate the readers who have brought this to my attention so that I could more accurately clarify my interpretation of this study. Please read this article for yourself to learn more.

Truth or consequences about mercury

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Aluminum in Vaccines-A Neurological Gamble

An e-book by Neil Z. Miller on Aluminum

E-book

MSG and Autism

MSG and Autism

 By John Erb-Age of Autism

 

….This experience twenty years ago shaped my view of Autism and the direction of the research journey I have taken.  In 2003 I finally put my ideas to paper.  In the book called The Slow Poisoning of America, I theorized that something was actually causing the brains of those with ASD to grow too much.  The culprit:  Monosodium Glutamate. Introduced to the America diet in 1950 it is an amino acid added to food to make it taste better and to vaccines to stabilize the active ingredients.  At the time I published this idea I had little scientific evidence to support it, more of a “hunch” than hard core science.  But over the last 5 years I have gathered enough published medical studies to validate a highly probable link between this excitotoxin and the Autism epidemic.

 

Suddenly the pieces of the puzzle began to take shape.  The studies I had gathered that showed people with ASD had larger brains and the ones that revealed an odd difference in white and gray brain matter made sense when glutamate was considered.  The main reason mercury has been pushed has been due to the abnormal deposits of it found in people with Autism.  But in studies mercury has always been shown to reduce the growth of the brain, not increase it.  Carol Hornlien, food scientist and creator of www.msgtruth.com revealed the reason:  High levels of MSG reduces the liver’s production of Cysteine.  This leads to a reduction in Glutathione which aids in the removal of heavy metals in the body.  With less Glutathione, the metals collect in the body.  High Mercury would then be a symptom of Autism, and not the cause. 

In spite of the lack of funding to explore the connection, recent studies have supported the possibility. Page and Daly et al in 2006 concluded that “Abnormalities in glutamate/glutamine may partially underpin the pathophysiology of autistic spectrum disorders.   Shinohe, Hashimoto et al in 2007 determined that their “study suggests that an abnormality in glutamatergic neurotransmission may play a role in the pathophysiology of autism.   Even in 2001 Glutamate was being scientifically connected with Autism.  Purcell, Jeon et al. concluded that “subjects with autism may have specific abnormalities in the AMPA-type glutamate receptors and glutamate transporters in the cerebellum. These abnormalities may be directly involved in the pathogenesis of the disorder.”

Read Full Blog Here

MSG

MSG in Vaccines

 MSG is found in vaccines and it is used as a stabilizer which is an ingredient to keep the virus alive. Essentially, all viral vaccines have free glutamic acid because it is used to feed the live virus. Stabilizers are also added to stabilize the vaccine against temperature variations or a freeze-drying process.

Since we already know the blood brain barrier is not fully developed in young children, to protect the brain against toxins that enter the blood, glutamic acid can penetrate the placental barrier.

 

 Vaccines that contain MSG are:

 

Varivax or otherwise known as the Chicken Pox vaccine. This vaccine contains L-monosodium glutamate and hydrolyzed gelatin.

 

Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (M-M-R) vaccine. The growth medium for Measles and Mumps contains amino acids and glutamate.  The medium for Rubella includes amino acids and hydrolyzed gelatin.  According to the package insert the reconstituted vaccine for subcutaneous administration includes hydrolyzed gelatin.

 

 M-R Vaccine (Measles and Rubella) contains hydrolyzed gelatin.
Attenuvax (Measles) hydrolyzed gelatin.

Biavax (Rubella) hydrolyzed gelatin.

JE-VAX (Japanese Encephalitis) gelatin.

Prevnar ( Pneumococcal– 7 Valent Conjugate Vaccine) soy protein, yeast.

YF-VAX (Yellow Fever ) gelatin.

 FluMist Vaccine (nasal) monosodium glutamate.

 

 Keep in mind that amino acids such as glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and L-cysteine are all neurotoxins.  All hydrolyzed proteins, such as the hydrolyzed gelatin, contain some processed free glutamic acid (MSG), aspartic acid, and L-cysteine. Gelatin and any ingredients that use ‘Hydrolyzed’ contain Glutamate.

  

Risks of FluMist Vaccine
By Dr. Sherri Tenpenny

 

“… The risk that the vaccine may contain contaminant avian retroviruses still remains. In addition, a stabilizing buffer containing potassium phosphate, sucrose (table sugar) and nearly 0.5 mg of monosodium glutamate (MSG) is added to each dose.

 

“One of the most troubling concerns over the injection of this “chemical soup” is the potential for the viruses to enter directly into the brain. At the top of the nasal passages is a paper-thin bone called the cribriform plate. The olfactory nerves pass through this bone and line the nasal passages, carrying messenger molecules to the brain that are identified as “smells” familiar to us. The olfactory tract has long been recognized as a direct pathway to the brain. Intranasal injection of certain viruses has resulted in a serious brain infection called encephalitis, presumably by direct infection of the olfactory neurons that carried the viruses to the brain. [19] Time will tell whether the live viruses in FluMist will become linked to cases of encephalitis.”

 

 Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances lists glutamic acid as a toxin:

The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances Glutamic acid, monosodium salt, L – (+) – RTECS #: MA1575000, CAS #: 142-47-2 can be found here.

Gulf War Syndrome

If You Let the Idiots Talk They’ll Tell You What You Want to Know

By Kent Heckenlively, Esq.

I’m still trying to get my mind around the 452 page government report recently released on Gulf War illness and its implications for the vaccine/autism controversy.

For those keeping score, two years ago the National Academy of Sciences released a report asserting there was no such thing as Gulf War illness.  (“VA-Funded Report Unable to Find Evidence of a Complex of Symptoms”, www.msnbc.com, September 13, 2006).

The congressionally mandated report entitled “Gulf War Illness and the Health of Gulf War Veterans” is devastating in its findings.  As reported in the November 17, 2008 of USA Today (“Gulf War Syndrome is a Real Illness, Study Finds”), “The illness resulted from exposure to chemicals and anti-nerve-gas vaccinations received, and no effective treatment has been found.  It affects 25% of the 695,000 U.S. Gulf War vets (author’s note – approximately 173,000 service members) and perhaps 55,000 British veterans.”

Continued

Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans’ Illnesses. Gulf War Illness and the Health of Gulf War Veterans: Scientific Findings and Recommendations (pdf)

Gulf War Illness and the Health of Gulf War Veterans

Tween 80 ( Polysorbate 80)

Vaccines containing Tween 80 (Polysorbate 80):

 

DTaP-all brands

DTaP/HepB/IPV (Pediarix)

HPV-Gardasil

Influenza-Fluarix

Japanese Encephalitis-JE-Vax

 

 

 

 

A study published in December, 2005 discovered that Tween80 can cause anaphylaxis, a sometimes fatal reaction characterized by a sharp drop in blood pressure, hives, and breathing difficulties. Researchers concluded that the severe reaction was not a typical allergic response characterized by the combination of IgE antibodies and the release of histamines; it was caused by a serious disruption that had occurred within the immune system.

(Coors, Esther A., Seybold, Heidi, Merk, Hans, Mahler, Vera. “Polysorbate 80 in medical products and nonimmunologic anaphylactoid reactions,” Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology 95 (2005): 593–599.)

 

The study also included a pregnant woman who suffered anaphylactic shock after being given an IV drip of multi-vitamins containing polysorbate 80. There have been numerous studies which show that the stabilizer causes infertility. Source:

(Gajdova M, Jakubovsky J, Valky J.Delayed effects of neonatal exposure to Tween 80 on female reproductive organs in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 1993 Mar;31(3):183-90. PMID: 8473002.)

Infant female rats were injected with polysorbate 80 at days 4-7 after birth. It accelerated the maturing of the rats and caused changes to the vagina and womb lining, hormonal changes, ovary deformities and degenerative follicles.

 

According to the World Intellectual Property Organization, which is part of the United Nations, scientists from the organization are developing vaccines specifically to damage fertility as a method of contraception. A suggested ingredient for the vaccine is tween 80 (polysorbate 80):

“In a preferred embodiment the vaccine comprises oil, preferably a biodegradable oil such as squalene oil. Typically, the vaccine is prepared using an adjuvant concentrate which contains lecithin in squalene oil. The aqueous solution glycoprotein is typically a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution, and additionally preferably contains Tween 80.”

(Fertility Impairing Vaccine And Methods of Use’ This application claims the benefit of U. S. Provisional Application No. 60/070,375, filed January 2,1998, U. S. Provisional Application No. 60/071,406, filed January 15,1998.)

 

Gardasil contains Polysorbate 80, which is linked to infertility in mice,” noted Dee Nicholson, National Communications Director for Freedom in Canadian Health Care. It is stated clearly in the manufacturer’s information sheet that comes with the vaccine.

Vaccine adjuvants: The dream becomes real

 

After about 70 years two new adjuvants have been approved for human vaccines. The first is MF59 developed by the ex-Chiron now Novartis Vaccines and it consists in an oil-in-water emulsion, comprising a low content of biodegradable squalene oil (4.3%) as the dispersed phase, which is stabilized by two non-ionic surfactants (Tween 80 and Span 85), and a low ionic strength citrate buffer as the continuous phase. The second defined as AS04 it has been developed by GSK Biologics it consists in 3-0-descyl-4’-monophosporyl lipid A (MPL) that comes from the cell wall LPS of Gram-negative Salmonella minnesota R595 and is detoxified by mild hydrolytic treatment and purification. It is absorbed on aluminum hydroxide or aluminum phosphate. Thus, new molecules are available to improve the immune response to vaccine also in humans: this is the beginning of a new era in vaccinology.

The current research on the stabilizer Tween 80 reveals the following:

“Neonatal female rats were injected ip (0.1 ml/rat) with Tween 80 in 1, 5 or 10 percent aqueous solution on days 4-7 after birth. Treatment with Tween 80 accelerated maturation, prolonged the oestrus cycle, and induced persistent vaginal oestrus. The relative weight of the uterus and ovaries was decreased relative to the untreated controls. Squamous cell metaplasia of the epithelial lining of the uterus and cytological changes in the uterus were indicative of chronic oestrogenic stimulation. Ovaries were without corpora lutea, and had degenerative follicles.” ~ PMID: 8473002

 

 

Female lab rats injected with Tween 80 developed impaired sexual organs as well as premature development of their sexual organs.

 

 

Adjuvants–a classification and review of their modes of action

 

Water-in-oil emulsions

These are microdroplets of water, stabilized by surfactant (typically mannide monooleate) in a continuous oil phase (typically mineral oil, squalene or squalane). Freund’s incomplete adjuvant (FIA) has been used for human and veterinary vaccines, but is now largely discredited (perhaps unjustly) due to a low incidence of site reactivity. Emulsions based on metabolizable oils have a superior safety profile.

They are poorly immunomodulatory (in absence of local irritant effect), provide good short term depots, are inexpensive, relatively simple to formulate and induce good antibody responses especially for hydrophilic immunogens. W/o emulsions provide an excellent formulation into which soluble immunomodulators can be incorporated. Emulsions can be unstable.

 

Oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions

These are microdroplets of oil (typically squalene or squalane, size about 290 nm), stabilized by surfactants (typically Tween 80 and/or Span 85) in a continuous water phase and are under development as human vaccine adjuvants, frequently in association with soluble immunomodulators [e.g., muramyl dipeptide (MDP) derivatives or block copolymers]. O/w emulsions result in excellent antigen presentation and moderate targeting.

They are inexpensive, safe and excellent basic formulations into which lipophilic immunomodulators can be incorporated: in addition they are highly suited for amphipathic molecules where presentation is important. It is important to incorporate immunogen into the oil phase.

 

MF59 and Squalene

MF59 is an adjuvant which is a chemical used to increase the immune system’s response to an antigen.

 

 

MF59:

 

MF59TM is a sub-micron oil-in-water emulsion of a squalene, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (TweenTM 80) and sorbitan trioleate.  Squalene is a natural organic compound originally obtained from shark liver oil and a biochemical precursor to steroids. The MF59 adjuvant was developed by Chiron Corp., a company acquired by Novartis.  MF59 is approved in Europe and is found in several vaccines, such as an influenza vaccine manufactured by Novartis.  It has also been licensed to other companies and is being actively tested in vaccine trials.

 

 Chiron Announces Promising Data from Clinical Study of Adjuvanted Avian Influenza Vaccine; Results Confirm Previous Clinical Studies: Chiron’s MF59 Adjuvant Significantly Enhances Immune Response

 

 

Safety of MF59™ adjuvant

 

 

Researchers Try to Boost Supply of Flu Vaccine

 

…We are in possession of one of the key ingredients of a potential solution to the pandemic threat,” said Howard Pien, president of Chiron Corp. The California biotech firm has an adjuvant, an emulsion called MF59 whose main constituent is shark-liver oil. It is already in use in a flu vaccine in Europe.

“We believe that the adjuvant may become the holy grail of vaccines,” Chrystyna Bedrij, an analyst with Griffin Securities, wrote in November in a review of avian flu-related business.

 

Vaccines with the MF59 adjuvant do not stimulate antibody responses against squalene. (Research Center, Novartis Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy.)


Squalene is a naturally occurring oil which has been used in the development of vaccine adjuvants, such as the oil-in-water emulsion MF59. In past years, by use of noncontrolled and nonvalidated assays, a claim was made that antisqualene antibodies were detectable in the sera of individuals with the so-called Gulf War syndrome. Using a validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies against squalene, we demonstrated that antisqualene antibodies are frequently detectable at very low titers in the sera of subjects who were never immunized with vaccines containing squalene. More importantly, vaccination with a subunit influenza vaccine with the MF59 adjuvant neither induced antisqualene antibodies nor enhanced preexisting antisqualene antibody titers. In conclusion, antisqualene antibodies are not increased by immunization with vaccines with the MF59 adjuvant. These data extend the safety profile of the MF59 emulsion adjuvant.

 

 FLU SHOTS AND THE NEW ADJUVANTS: BEWARE! By Dr. Sherri Tenpenny

…When molecules of squalene enter the body through an injection, even at concentrations as small as 10 to 20 parts per billion, it can lead to self-destructive immune responses, such as autoimmune arthritis and lupus.[9]

Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this reaction. Metabolically, squalene stimulates an immune response excessively and nonspecifically. More than two dozen peer-reviewed scientific papers from ten different laboratories throughout the U.S., Europe, Asia, and Australia have been published documenting the development of autoimmune disease in animals subjected to squalene-based adjuvants.[10] A convincing proposal for why this occurs includes the concept of “molecular mimicry” in which an antibody created against the squalene in MF59 can cross react with the body’s squalene on the surface of human cells. The destruction of the body’s own squalene can lead to debilitating autoimmune and central nervous system diseases.

The squalene in MF59 is not the only cause for concern. One of its components, Tween80 (polysorbate 80) is considered to be “inert” but is far from it. A recent study (December 2005) discovered that Tween80 can cause anaphylaxis, a sometimes fatal reaction characterized by a sharp drop in blood pressure, hives, and breathing difficulties. Researchers concluded that the severe reaction was not a typical allergic response characterized by the combination of IgE antibodies and the release of histamines; it was caused by a serious disruption that had occurred within the immune system.[11]

Vaccine manufacturer, Chiron, is already using MF59 in its European influenza vaccine for seniors called Fluad™. It remains to be seen if Chiron will gain approval for using this adjuvant-containing vaccine in the U.S…

 

Vaccine A:  THE COVERT GOVERNMENT EXPERIMENT  THAT’S KILLING OUR SOLDIERS and Why GIs Are Only the First Victims

 

1.   Many new vaccines feature recombinant DNA. One piece of a deadly germ is inserted or spliced into other organisms, creating bio-engineered microbial molecules. To prompt the body to create antibodies to these recombinants, scientists have created deadly oil-based vaccine additives called adjuvants. Oil-based adjuvants cause extreme inflammation and animals injected with them always develop painful, incurable auto-immune diseases like multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus.

 

2.   Since Gulf War I, the military has been secretly putting an oil-based adjuvant called SQUALENE into certain experimental lots of military vaccines. Just like lab animals, thousands of soldiers given SQUALENE- laced vaccines have developed disabling auto-immune diseases. Independent researchers have found SQUALENE antibodies in these sick soldiers. In 2005, the military admitted that 1,200 military personnel who received anthrax vaccine before going to Iraq recently developed serious illnesses, including memory loss and chronic fatigue.

 

3.  The military and federal health agencies have long kept their SQUALENE experiments on U.S. military troops secret because they know that oil-based adjuvants wreak havoc with immune function, causing the body to attack itself. Matsumoto documents how federal and military officials have often been caught lying about the SQUALENE in military vaccines.

 

4.  Matsumoto warns that the National Institutes of Health has funded production of new vaccines for flu, human papilloma virus, malaria, HIV and herpes that also contain SQUALENE. The federal government has been running human clinical tests on these new commercial vaccines and test subjects have not been properly informed of the grave health dangers. Researchers have even found SQUALENE in some of the older vaccines containing tetanus and diphtheria toxoids. Should we wonder why auto-immune diseases like fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue are now rampant?

 

5.    The Bush administration is funding development of new bio-warfare vaccines that will also contain oil- based SQUALENE adjuvants like MF59 or MPL. Because federal officials know that these vaccines may cause disability or death, legislation to protect vaccine makers from lawsuits is expected to be passed by Congress before the end of 2005.* If you become chronically ill from these vaccines, tough luck!

 

 

Antibodies to Squalene in Recipients of Anthrax Vaccine

 

We previously reported that antibodies to squalene, an experimental vaccine adjuvant, are present in persons with symptoms consistent with Gulf War Syndrome (GWS) (P. B. Asa et al., Exp. Mol. Pathol 68, 196–197, 2000). The United States Department of Defense initiated the Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program (AVIP) in 1997 to immunize 2.4 million military personnel. Because adverse reactions in vaccinated personnel were similar to symptoms of GWS, we tested AVIP participants for anti-squalene antibodies (ASA). In a pilot study, 6 of 6 vaccine recipients with GWS-like symptoms were positive for ASA. In a larger blinded study, only 32% (8/25) of AVIP personnel compared to 15.7% (3/19) of controls were positive (P _ 0.05). Further analysis revealed that ASA were associated with specific lots of vaccine. The incidence of ASA in personnel in the blinded study receiving these lots was 47% (8/17) compared to an incidence of 0% (0/8; P _ 0.025) of the AVIP participants receiving other lots of vaccine. Analysis of additional personnel revealed that in all but one case (19/20; 95%), ASA were restricted to personnel immunized with lots of vaccine known to contain squalene. Except for one symptomatic individual, positive clinical findings in 17 ASA-negative personnel were restricted to 4 individuals receiving vaccine from lots containing squalene. ASA were not present prior to vaccination in preimmunization sera available from 4 AVIP personnel. Three of these individuals became ASA positive after vaccination. These results suggest that the production of ASA in GWS patients is linked to the presence of squalene in certain lots of anthrax vaccine. © 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  

The Endogenous Adjuvant Squalene Can Induce a Chronic T-Cell-Mediated Arthritis in Rats

 

…Our demonstration that an autoadjuvant can trigger chronic, immune-mediated joint-specific inflammation may give clues to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, and it raises new questions concerning the role of endogenous molecules with adjuvant properties in chronic inflammatory diseases.