1954 Francis Trials
The 1954 Francis Trials were unique. The trial was comprised of three groups of children: vaccinated, injected Placebo controlled, and observed placebo controlled. Observed meaning that observed children were not injected with anything, just simply watched. What was the outcome?
Keep in mind that 84 test areas in 11 states used the textbook model where the injected children were “blinded” so no-one knew who had been given the vaccine or the placebo (dummy) shot. 127 areas in 33 states used an observed control, where children either received the vaccine, or were just watched. In other words, there was no placebo (dummy) injection given in 33 states. The eleven state trials were needed to define the vaccine, whereas the other state areas were added to maintain public support for the vaccine, because some states were annoyed that they might miss out. According to BMJ:
“If the Salk vaccine trials were to succeed, it was essential that they be a great national event, enlisting volunteers, doctors, and parents in one united effort that represented the culmination of 15 years of work and faith.”
The trial was part medical and part public relations.
According to the Journal of the American Medical Association :
158 paralytic and non-paralytic cases in 422,473 vaccinated (33 states) or 0.04%
705 paralytic and non-paralytic cases from 1,407,173 controls (33 states) or 0.05%
71 paralytic cases out of 422,643 receiving vaccine or 0.02%
614 paralytic cases out of 1,407,173 controls or 0.04%
42 non-paralytic cases out of 422,643 vaccinated or 0.01%
136 non paralytic cases out of 1,407,173 controls or 0.01%
The comparative percentage figures (11 states):
33 paralytic cases out of 200,745 SALK vaccinated children or 0.02%
115 paralytic cases out of 201,229 dummy injections or 0.06%
122 paralytic cases out of 347,262 observed (no injections) children or 0.04%
The most useful finding is that in calculating the efficacy figures, the no injection children were missed out (0.4%). No account was taken of the provocation polio clearly evident amongst the placebo vaccinated children. Efficacy was calculated by comparing the 0.06% from the placebo (dummy) injected, with the 0.02% from the vaccinated.
Dr.Francis might even have had some reservations, because he said:
“…from these data is it not possible to select a single value giving numerical expression in a complete sense to the effectiveness of the vaccine as a total experience – it may be ‘suggested’ that vaccination was 80 – 90 percent effective.”
This figure was given by comparing the attack rate of 41 cases of polio per 100,000 vaccinated children with 81 cases of polio per 100,000 placebo injected children. However, if you compare 41 cases per 100,000 vaccinated children, with 54 cases per 100,000 “observed” children, the vaccine only reaches a 13% margin of effectiveness.
A more interesting comparison is this based on the official U.S. figures:
37,000 cases of polio in the remaining 163,000,000 population of the U.S. or 0.023%.
The Francis Trials showed 1,013 cases in 1,829,916 subjects, or 0.055%.
So it works out this way:
The Francis Trial resulted in 1 case of diagnosed polio for every 1,806 people in the study. The rest of the untouched USA had 1 case of diagnosed polio for every 4,406 people in the country.
Now, if you just compared the vaccinated, with the rest of USA:
33 paralytic cases out of 200,745 SALK vaccinated children or 0.02%
37,000 cases of polio in the remaining 163,000,000 population of the USA, or.0.023%
The vaccine efficacy of the vaccination group was only 0.003% greater than that of untouched U.S. This vaccine was the touted ‘success’ that saved the world from Polio?
Look at what some of the newspapers reported:
United Press :
33 paralytic cases out of 460,000 vaccinated or 0.001%
115 paralytic cases out of 1,369,916 controls or 0.001%
425 combined cases (paralytic and non paralytic) out of 749,236 in 11 states or 0.05%
585 combined cases (paralytic and non-paralytic) out of 1,080,680 in 33 states or 0.05%
Associated Press :
71 paralytic cases out of 440,00 vaccinated or 0.02%
445 paralytic cases out of 1,400,000 controls or 0.03%
42 non-paralytic cases out of 440,000 receiving vaccine or 0.01%
305 non-paralytic cases out of 1,400,000 controls or 0.02%
Time Magazine :
57 combined cases of polio out of 440,000 receiving vaccine or 0.013%
142 combined cases of polio out of 210,000 dummy injections or 0.07%
664 combined cases of polio out of 1,180,000 controls or 0.06%
27,000 blood samples using 2,000,000 test tubes or (74 tubes/B. sample)
Numerically, the results are the same. Yet the Time stated that “still more encouraging statistically, the unvaccinated had 3 ½ times as many paralytic cases” The problem being that this was a 3 to one ratio, when according to their own figures, 440,000 were vaccinated, and 1,390,000 were not a 3-1 ratio. The public bought it and the vaccine was the ‘miracle’.
After polio, a new condition now causes crippling pains… and doctors can’t treat it
Mary is one of around 120,000 Britons who suffer from post-polio syndrome. Despite the numbers affected, very few doctors know much about it.
They’ve assumed, like most of us, that as the polio virus itself has now been eradicated in this country, it is a health concern of the past.
But the long-term effects of the disease — rife in the UK in the Fifties — can be as debilitating as the disease in its early stages.
Post-polio syndrome is the name for a collection of incurable symptoms — including muscle wastage, muscle and joint pain, and mental and physical fatigue — common to many who have suffered from the full-blown disease.
When the symptoms recur, it may be 20-40 years after the initial disease. Circulation may be impaired and breathing can become difficult due to weakening chest muscles.
Another possible cause is inflammation in the nerve cells, brought on by the immune system’s response to the original infection.
Sometimes it can be caused by a complication of the earlier polio — for example, the spine may have been left twisted, which causes premature ageing of the vertebrae.
As a result, up to 70 per cent of post-polio syndrome sufferers live in constant pain, according to a survey soon to be published by the British Polio Fellowship, a charity set up to support people with polio or post-polio syndrome.
The complication in Mary’s case was that she wasn’t officially diagnosed with polio as a child.
She was nine when she contracted a mystery virus that had caused a high temperature, a stiff neck, an aching head and partially paralysed her left side — all classic symptoms of polio.
OPV vs. IPV
OPV works fairly well. IPV may protect against the virus invading your central nervous system and causing paralysis. But it does nothing to prevent gut infection. No one really knows how well IPV works to prevent paralytic polio either. The IPOL package insert lists original Salk data for its effectiveness information. OPV is an oral vaccine that’s live. It’s living, replicating polio that was adapted to animal tissue for a while, but then it evolved and “forgot” how to cross over from the gut to the brain in humans.
ALL of the original IPV effectiveness stats were an illusion. During the clinical trials, they injected everyone with an ineffective dose of live, unattenuated, wild polio. When the children were paralyzed, they made excuses and counted the children as unvaccinated. The manufacturers then figured out that Salks’ formalin inactivation method didn’t work. They then ‘cooked’ the viruses longer, and diluted the shot. This resulted in “antibody mediated enhancement” http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/301notes4b.html in the vaccinated. The vaccinated children fared worse when they were exposed to the virus later. All killed virus vaccines run this risk. If the viral load you inject someone with isn’t high enough, you’ll make people half-immune. Since they knew something was wrong, they changed the diagnostic criteria to artificially drive the numbers down for a time, while they hurriedly got an OPV approved. The IPV we use today is manufactured in a different way, so you get more dead viruses per dose than there was in the original IPV. However, the new one hasn’t really been tested for effectiveness. Its effectiveness is simply an elaborate assumption with a little circumstantial evidence.
The 1955, Journal of American Statistical Assn 50: 1005- 1013, stated of the Francis report:
59% of the trial was worthless because of lack of adequate controls. The remaining 41% may have been alright, but contains internal evidence of bias in favour of the vaccinated.
The initial decision (later changed) to vaccinate all willing second graders and to use the non-volunteer second graders and all first and third-grade children as un-inoculated controls nearly invalidated the 1954 trials…” Placebo-inoculated volunteers experienced significantly more disease than did age-comparable unvaccinated non-volunteers”
A reviewer, Mr. Brownlee, also stated that the National Foundation had proclaimed gamma globulin effective after similar trials, but it had been proven useless later.
In BMJ, April 30, 1955, it stated about the Francis Report, that large sections of the trial were subject to doubtful procedures and open to criticism; for instance:
1) Inoculated children in one large section were not the same age as the un-inoculated controls.
2) Children to be inoculated were those whose parents agreed to have it done. It is recognized amongst statisticians involved in similar assessments that the social position and care in volunteer families are usually superior to that in controls.
In an article in Scope Weekly, January 21, 1959, page 4, it cited studies illustrating the unpredictable immune response of children given a full series of Salk inoculations. Five months after the third dose, 44% were without demonstrable antibody for Type 1 poliovirus, while 53% were without type 3. In terms of serum levels sufficient to yield antibody in nasopharyngeal excretions, inadequate titers were found in 78% for Type 1, and 84% for Type 3.
In the Journal of the American Medical Association, Volume 163, No 2, January 12, 1957 stated that:
An analysis of the figures (Salk Polio Vaccine) shows that the incident of paralytic cases among the vaccinated children who had poliomyelitis was 40% as compared with 44% among the unvaccinated children.
The statistics from the Polio Surveillance Units stats are now classified. But what they show is that:
In 1955 there were 7,886 cases of paralytic polio, 15% of them, were vaccinated.
In 1956, 7210 paralytic cases, 16% vaccinated. Non paralytic polio, 6027 cases, 32% vaccinated.
In 1957, 2172 cases paralytic polio, 30% vaccinated, 2,603 non paralytic polio, 54% vaccinated.
In 1958, 3122 paralytic polio cases, 33% vaccinated.
In the medical literature, it states that only 36% of USA’s population had been vaccinated with the first 3 primary doses. Reviews of Infectious Diseases, Volume 2, No 2, March – April 1980, pages 277-281 ‘Eradication of Poliomyelitis in the United States: A commentary on the Salk Reviews’ by Dr. John P. Fox. Notice that it was also required that booster doses be given every year. The article also pointed out that most of the available evidence for antibody persistence after either IPV or OPV is of questionable validity.
In 1959, 5,594 paralytic polio cases 50%+ cases vaccinated which equals 3726 cases, of which 928 had had three or more doses.
In 1960, 2,545 paralytic polio cases, 210 deaths, 77% fully vaccinated with four doses.
In 1956, Vaccine satellite cases were dropped. The Polio Surveillance Units didn’t accept these as vaccine related and they were listed under unvaccinated. In 1960, with the introduction of Sabin vaccine, satellite cases were once again reported and classified as vaccine induced. In 1957 the UPSR Supplement, no 15, was the first recommendation that no longer should Polio which was caused by other agents, such as echoviruses, coxsackie viruses or any other cause other than polio virus, be listed under polio. In order to be defined as polio, the patient not only had to have the virus, but also had to have residual paralysis 60 days later.
In 1958, the CDC formally adopted the “Best available paralytic poliomyelitis case count” or BAPPCC.
“Cases must be clinically and epidemiologically compatible with poliomyelitis, must have resulted in paralysis, and must have a residual neurological deficit 60 days after onset of initial symptoms. .. the BAPPCC does not include cases of nonparalytic poliomyelitis, of those in which paralysis is more transient. The original purpose of developing these criteria was to omit cases possibly due to enteroviruses other than polioviruses.”
“Several generations of transmission of poliovirus can occur after importation since most infections are subclinical.”….”the poliovirus isolated from a patient with paralytic disease may not always be the virus causing the patient’s disease.” (Lancet, December 8. 1984 pages 1315 – 1317, “Poliomeylitis” by Robert J. Kim-Farley et al)
The definition changes were so radical, that many doctors publicly stated in medical journals, that it effectively eliminated 90% of what had previous been accepted as paralytic polio.
In the Journal of Experimental Medicine, 1958, 108:605 – 616, by Dalldorf and Weigand, it showed that in monkeys, poliomyelitis may result from simultaneous infections with an attenuated poliovirus and polio-like virus, such as a coxsackie virus. Neither virus alone induced paralysis, but together they did.
“In about 95 percent of polio cases, infection from the polio virus causes no symptoms or serious effects. In about 5 percent of cases, the polio virus manifests in a mild form (abortive polio) with flu-like symptoms, in a non-paralytic form (aseptic meningitis) or in a severe form called paralytic polio. People who have minor or non-paralytic forms recover completely. …”
Before the polio vaccine, there was very little viral polio. There was paralysis, but its cause was not a polio virus but DDT pesticide poisoning. The chemical that likely poisoned FDR while swimming in a lake in upstate NY. Where DDT was produced, you also saw that it was exactly the region where the epidemic was. DDT was banned at the same time the polio vaccine was introduced, making the vaccine seem as though it were the cure of the disease. With the introduction of the OPV we created the most crippling viral polio ever. This tells the story.
In Human Genome Research and Society Proceedings of the Second International Bioethics Seminar in Fukui, 20-21 March, 1992. From pp. 205-210,Director, NINDS, National Institutes of Health, USA:
In most infections only a rare individual becomes ill or suffers rare complications, and that individual may be genetically predetermined, it usually is. For example, HTLV-1 infects 1-2 million Japanese, but only one in over a thousand gets adult advanced T cell leukemia after 40 years, and fortunately only about one in a thousand gets HAM, HTLV-1 associated myolopophy. Those unfortunate rare individuals are the problem, not the problem of the innocuous, or carriers, the other one thousand who die without ever knowing that they had it, and having no ill effect. The same can be said for poliomyelitis, where it takes 1,000 infected cases in order to induce a paralysis, the others don’t know they were infected.
Dr. Vivian Wyatt talked about genetic predetermination with regard to Polio, which can be shown in families, but Dr. Sandler showed that weakness could be fixed with diet.
Epidemiology of poliomyelitis: Natahnson et al 1979, American Journal of Epidemiology, 110(6): 672-692.
Strebel et al 1995, The New England Journal of Medicine, 332(8):500-506.
Our work shows that injections almost certainly cause three quarters of the 200,000 cases of polio each year in India – unnecessary injections as well as DPT causing provocation paralysis, given to children with diarrhoea, or fever – given unsertile , of unsuitable drugs, for gain.
3.3 Injection safety
Information suppled to WHO and UNICEF consistently highlights widespread unsterile injection practices… which can result in infectious complication such as the transmission of blood-born pathogens… the community at large is at risk when injection equipment is not safely disposed of, and because of its commercial value, is reused, sold, or recycles. Alarmingly, this situation is widely tolerated by health management…previous attempt by EPI to raise health officials’ awareness of the importance of injection safety have been met with skepticism, or, at best, noncommittal acknowledgement that “something should be done.” The problem however, is so broad and involved so many participants in the public and the private health sectors that no solution has so far been found.”
There is a need to determine what role EPI should play in raising awareness and improving the quality and safety of the injections indespensable for the deisease control initiative it promotes. Can this challenge be met by focussing on the safety of immunisation inections alone? Should EPI take a more proactive role in promoting safe injections throughout the health sector and lead a coordinated and concerted drive for safer injections?…GPV should pursue the development and implementation of technologies for safe injection including injection devices and disposal systems…
“During the Salk vaccine difficulties of the 50’s and 60’s an epidemiologist at New York State health Department concluded that if each infant had to travel two miles to get a shot there would be more disabilities caused by vehicle accidents than what the Salk vaccine itself would have prevented, to say nothing of therapeutic misadventures. (Letter to the New York Times, June 21, 1996, by Dr Herbert Ratner.)
“…any possible doubts, whether or not well founded, about the safety of the vaccine cannot be allowed to exist in view of the need to assure that the vaccine will continue to be used to the maximum extent consistent with the nation’s public health objectives”
Even before details of the elaborate and, I believe, careful experimental work had been presented to any competent scientific society, television, radio, banner press headlines, and four complete pages of the New York Times have informed the public of its wonders… Already anxious parents are demanding the vaccine for their children and worried administrators are requesting Presidential action to ensure its fair distribution. It is difficult for laymen here to see the risks of poliomyelitis in their correct perspective … The risks of a child being killed or maimed by car accidents is incomparably greater.”
“There is still some doubt whether universal vaccination for that is what it would have to be – is the best way of preventing polio in the long run….to protect each individual who actually needs protection we must vaccinate a very large number who would never have become paralyzed. In the American trial the figures show that it would be necessary to vaccinate nearly 4,000 individuals to protect each potential paralytic. And in a European country such as Britain where the overall paralytic rate is lower than in the USA, even larger numbers of vaccinations would be necessary to protect each vulnerable individual. Not only would the cost of such a program be very great, but among the 4,000 vaccinated we might expect sixteen reactions to inoculation.”
“In the USA they have tried and are trying huge experiments with gamma-globulin and various vaccines. There are definite drawbacks to mass injections and there have been some nasty accidents; also there is something rather unconvincing about immunizing a one in a thousand chance. For God’s sake – and I say that reverently, – lets try the simple things thoroughly first.”
DR. RATNER: I’m Herbert Ratner, the former Health Officer of Oak Park, Illinois, and the announcement was made April the 12, 1955, Tommy Vance has reported that the vaccine was safe and effective. And within a few days the National Foundation had this vaccine — I won’t go into the past history of that vaccine — but it was delivered throughout the United States so that every 1st and 2nd grader, as a free gift of that vaccine — every 1st and 2nd grader — and in the next week or two, that vaccine was given to every 1st and 2nd grader.
I think Oak Park was probably the only one who decided to sit down that free gift, vaccination gift, just to see how things were going along. There were other reasons, too. But I decided that before parents signed an authorization slip, which makes it possible to get the vaccine, that I should make available to them — which I did in 11 talks that week — be willing to answer questions that they had in terms of the risk of polio that summer, etc.
By just taking a neutral position at that time, you had all the pressure from the Foundation to get that vaccine going because of an impending summer polio epidemic — the usual summer epidemic — and that was the only thought in people’s minds: how fast, how well do mothers love their children? They didn’t rush to get the vaccine, and things like that.
And in the midst of my talks — I had two days of my talks — my community got very upset that where everybody else was giving the vaccine, we were holding out. And it caused quite a consternation in the Chicago area. It got to the science — Art Snider who was the Science writer for one of the major newspapers — he said Herb, what’s going on there? I said, well come out and listen to my talk, etc.
I have the talk on Tuesday and Wednesday he called me up and said, you’re more right than you know. Because they just got the first report of the Cutter vaccine situation where six cases in San Francisco and one in Chicago area, both from the same manufacturer, both from the same lot number, and we were in consternation three.
I had to postpone — actually, I was about the only one in the country that was in a position of not having anybody in my community immunized, and so I could sit it out. And I made one appointment to use the vaccine, to give that, give to their parents — one week later or two weeks later, whatever it was — and after that, the Cutter situation got worse.
And the local paper, as a result, had a story, checked around, in which they thought I had a very unique opinion that I hadn’t given the vaccine.
MODERATOR FRIED: I think we’re going to discuss the vaccines more tomorrow. I mean, this is mainly for the techniques, so —
DR. RATNER: Can I have about a minute more?
MODERATOR FRIED: One minute.
DR. RATNER: Yes. Keep up my same thought. The day that the local paper came out with the backing of all of the — everybody in the community, kind of — Seeley, the Surgeon General, called up the program because he wanted to make a safe vaccine safer was his exact terms.
They had to stop that thing because of the difficulty of the vaccine. And if all of you knew the difficulties they had with the Salk vaccine, whose position on inactivation turned out to be false — universally accepted as false — and how they kept packing it up and packing it up and packing it up, and they had to keep the program going and going. But I’m telling you that every 1st and 2nd grade child in the United States, which represented about 85 or 90 percent, got a vaccine which had live polio viruses in it, definitely established, and at that time they found out that the SV40 was —
MODERATOR FRIED: I —
DR. RATNER: Just one sentence, please. That the SV40 was not activated, and so that meant that there was SV40 in all of the vaccines around the country, and that was confirmed by — this is my last sentence — that was confirmed by anybody who focused epidemiologically. There were cases popping up all over the States — and this was confirmed by the German Health Ministry who were doing the same thing in Germany — that polio virus was being distributed. And if you people could see —
MODERATOR FRIED: I think I have to stop you, because we —
DR. RATNER: Could I just have a half-a-sentence?
MODERATOR FRIED: You’ve had a half-a-sentence.
DR. RATNER: If you people sit here and say that the vaccine didn’t pass on polio or SV40, you don’t know what happened in those times. And I’m talking about 1955, for the next ten years or more. It’s strange to me, as an epidemiologist working right on the field, to hear people somehow deny the vaccine — one more sentence, please.
Harry Francis was attacked right after his report —
MODERATOR FRIED: I think — why don’t you save this for tomorrow?
DR. RATNER: Okay.
“A 1992 study, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, validated earlier findings. Children who received DPT (diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis) injections were significantly more likely than controls to suffer paralytic poliomyelitis within the next 30 days. According to the authors, “this study confirms that injections are an important cause of provocative poliomyelitis back to previous levels and polio cases returned to “normal.” [26:146; 29].
The polio vaccine: a critical assessment of its arcane history, efficacy, and long-term health-related consequences
The polio vaccine targets three strains of Polio-P1, P2, and P3. There were 66 cases of Polio detected in 2005, 62 were the P1 strain. The government then introduced the monovalent vaccine which targets the P1 strain. Despite the new vaccine, 16 new cases of P1 were detected in 2006.
Most of the cases of polio are reported from the high risk endemic areas of UP and Bihar. This is a clear indicator of the fact that in the effectiveness of the vaccine is under question where issues of nutrition and sanitation are not being addressed alongside. Associate Professor, JNU Ritu Priya, says, “You need a twin approach. Vaccination plus sanitation, nutrition and clean drinking water. Only vaccination will not curb polio.”
The tragedy is that polio will continue in India, as has been evident even after 6 oral polio vaccines are sometimes given, because the interference from other enteroviruses is so large in that environment.
Even the appropriate WHO document clearly states that there is evidence that OPV has not worked in developing countries.
That Sabin’s oral polio vaccine (OPV) has not been able to eradicate polio in our country, is now well established (inter alia, Economic and Political Weekly, 4-11-06, p. 4538-4540; and 23-12-06, p.5229-5237; Tehelka, 11-11-06, p.8-9; The Hindu, Hyderabad, November 13, 2006, p.11; Down to Earth, 31-12-06, p.24-31; Conclusions Recommendations of a National Consultative Meeting organised by Ind ian Medical Association in New Delhi on May 14, 2006; Editorial in the Indian Journal of Medical Research, (IJMR), January 2007, p. 1-4; and numerous other articles in some of the world’s best known scientific journals, such as Science.)
Not only that the cases of non–polio acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in those vaccinated with OPV have shown a dramatic rise. It appears that in 2005, in Uttar Pradesh alone, 4,800 had residual paralysis, or died after acquiring non-polio AFP, in comparison to the all-India figure of 4,793 polio cases in 1994; the 2006 data, after six doses of monovalent OPV, are worse. The infructuous expenditure on the OPV programme would probably run into thousands of crores.
The pity of it is that all this was anticipated (Bhargava, The Hindu, December 12, 1999 ), and that we could have easily eradicated polio from our country by now. We did not do so because our successive governments and those who worked for them in responsible positions such as Secretaries and Joint Secretaries in the Ministry of Health, Directors-General of Medical and Health Services and even of the ICMR, were primarily (exclusively?) committed to personal and certain foreign interests and not to the cause of polio eradication.
Two types of vaccines:
There have been two types of vaccines available against polio: the injectable Salk vaccine (IPV) and the oral Sabin vaccine (OPV) using an attenuated live virus. Till the early 1980s, OPV was used in the developed countries to maintain the polio-free status that had been largely achieved through the use of IPV beginning the 1950s. By 1988, Jonas Salk had developed an enhanced potency injectable vaccine (M-IPV).
Evidence against OPV
Overwhelming evidence was presented at a meeting held in Delhi in March 1988, convened by Sam Pitroda, the then Adviser to the Prime Minister for National Technology Missions, that OPV had not worked in India.(Bhargava, The Hindu, December 12, 1999 ). There was a clear decision to shift to IPV. From the official minutes of this meeting:
“Expedite establishment of M-IPV programme. On moral grounds and considering the involvement of the lives of our children, cost shall be no consideration. Indigenous production of IPV before 1991 shall be aimed at.” “Whenever children in large numbers are dying, getting afflicted with polio, the empty and hollow argument of their being used as guinea pigs cannot be accepted.” “As new M-IPV programme ramps up, the OPV will ramp down.” Although IPV has always been more expensive than OPV, this is compensated by the fact that one may need to take only one or at most two doses of IPV whereas, in the case of OPV, the number of doses could be above ten.
It was clear that, for some time, OPV will continue to be with us. In fact, the then Secretary of the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), S. Ramachandran, had been earlier to the Soviet Union and, with their help, a factory (BIBCOL) to produce OPV was set up in Bulandshahr.
In keeping with the decision of the 1988 meeting — the only meeting of experts and concerned people so far convened by the government in regard to polio vaccination programme — another company called Indian Vaccine Corporation Ltd (IVCOL) was set up with a capital outlay of Rs. 90 crores. Both DBT and the Indian Petrochemicals Ltd. of Baroda had equity in it even though the majority shares belonged to Institute Merieux, one of the world’s largest, most reliable and respected vaccine producers that was committed to produce M-IPV which was far more heat-stable than OPV.
The West had decided to replace OPV with M-IPV. Therefore, market had to be found for OPV. WHO advised that developed countries use IPV, while developing countries use OPV. To oblige WHO, two steps were necessary:
(1) BIBCOL produces no OPV of its own
(2) India reverses its decision to gradually shift to IPV.
Both steps were taken. BIBCOL did not produce a single dose of OPV, and the Ministry of Health decided soon after the March 1988 meeting, without any further consultations, to shift permanently to OPV. Consequently IVCOL was closed down after incurring substantial expenditure, and some senior officers of the above Ministry received U.N. jobs with tax-free dollar salaries, after retirement. In January 1992, at a conference jointly organized by the International Comparative Virology Organization and the WHO in New Delhi, experts from all over the world indicated the preference of IPV over OPV for any plans of eradication of polio in developing countries.
An article by V.K. Bhasin in January 2008 issue of Nature Biotechnology. The article states that in 2006, there were 1,600 cases of OPV–induced polio plus a large number of cases of AFP from which virus was not cultured. So, the problem continues.
P3 virus resurfaces in a major way in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar (3/2008)
The polio type-1 (P1) virus may have been contained, but another, less dangerous p3 virus is wreaking havoc in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
This has put a question mark on the government policy that singularly focused on eradicating P1, neglecting other forms of the polio virus.
In a policy shift, the government is using the monovalent oral polio vaccine 1 (mOPV1), instead of the regular trivalent polio vaccine that immunises children to all polio types.
As a result, no fresh cases of P1 have been reported in the last one year. But the neglect of other polio viruses has led to an unprecedented outbreak of P3. Eighty-two cases of P3 have been reported since January 2008 – 69 in UP, Bihar (12) and Haryana (1) and the virus is replacing P1.
Health ministry officials agreed that P3 cases were on a sharp rise due to the singular focus on P1, but said that since the latter was more virulent it needed to be checked first.
Though P3 too disables, it can be contained easily as the virus doesn’t spread fast. However, the health authorities have to be on guard and quickly start immunisation rounds for P3 too,” said Dr Raju C Shah of Indian Pediatrics Association (IPA). Shah has been part of the IPA polio immunisation programme.
Of the three polio viruses, P2 has been eradicated from the world, but P1 and P3 are still active. Between the two, P1 is the most dangerous. It not only spreads rapidly, but also can’t be killed easily and persists in the human chain for long. P3 spreads slowly, doesn’t cause severe paralysis and has a low disability rate. Health experts, however, say it can be a cause of worry in the future.
The trivalent polio vaccine immunises children against all three polio types. However, since monovalent oral polio vaccine produces higher immunity as compared to trivalent, MoPV1 was used in high-risk districts and states.
Outbreak of Polio in the Amish
an actual test on the fecal matter of an Amish baby admitted with an immunodeficiency, and an infection which wouldn’t resolve, which was not polio. The baby did not have any clinical symptoms of polio, so the finding of the virus was an accident. At the time they were not even thinking it was polio. The CDC said that the polio virus had been circulating for 2 years. The baby, the CDC admits on their website, picked it up in the third hospital she was in. The Amish baby picked it up from vaccinated people and her family picked it up from her. The only reason none of them got polio was because the toxicities in their lives, and their genes, meant that they weren’t susceptible.
Hillman, Hernando and Alomia, and Doull, Hudson,and Hahn have all reported on the rarity of paralytic poliomyelitis among the natives in the Philippines, before World War II, where poliomyelitis was considered to be a disease of white people. During World War II, when the incidence of poliomyelitis among American troops in the Philippines was exceptionally high (88 and 43 per 100,000, respectively, in 1944 and 1945), repeated investigations of the native population in the affected areas revealed either no cases or rare instances of paralytic poliomyelitis among Filipino children.
…The high incidence of poliomyelitis antibody among such groups as well as the high incidence of paralytic poliomyelitis among American or British adults stationed in these countries has indicated not only that poliomyelitis infection can be widespread where poliomyelitic paralysis is not, but also that the viruses do not lack virulence in the countries with a low incidence of poliomyelitis in the native population.
Serological surveys furthermore have brought forth more than suggestive evidence that the incidence of paralytic poliomyelitis is inversely proportional to the extensiveness of viral dissemination. In general, the poorer the population, its standard of living and sanitation, the more extensively is poliomyelitis virus disseminated among them and the lower is the incidence of paralytic poliomyelitis when virulent strains of virus come their way.
A 1951 article shows Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1951 Oct; 41(10):1215-30 those developing countries didn’t have paralytic polio at the time when the developing world was starting to have serious epidemics.
What are your chances of Polio?
Susceptibility of Polio was determined by several things. Sick kids never got polio, as weird as that sounds. People who are the ‘life of the party’, over-worked, or who run on never-ending batteries, were dead sitting ducks for polio, but was also dependent on their diet. Healthy people, who if incubating Polio got stressed, pregnant, were overworked, or got vaccinated, could come down with Polio. Immunodeficiency could potentially make polio more fatal. Tonsillectomies guaranteed a higher chance of getting polio. In 1994 it was finally known that Selenium status made a difference. Cuba got struck with what was first thought to be polio, but which was eventually found to be a coxsackie B virus. Certain sectors of Cuba did not get any paralysis at all, though they were found to have the same infection quota of the virus. Studies found that the mineral and vitamin content of the food people ate had protected them against the paralysis factor of the virus. There are some viruses, like coxsackie, that give guinea-pigs an identical syndrome to polio.
In guinea pigs it is known that there is an epigenetic factor, which means, that if a guinea pig with that gene susceptibility is exposed to that virus in certain nutritional deficiency situations they will get that disease. Polio does not need a human host. See Pubmed.
A serological indication of the existence of a guineapig poliovirus.
Attempts were made to clarify whether laboratory guineapigs may harbour a poliovirus which, in 1911, was described as the cause of a disease called guineapig lameness. By the use of ELISA for antibodies against the poliovirus, Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), it was shown that two pet shop guineapigs suffering from lameness had extremely high titres against poliovirus, while healthy guineapigs from the same pet shop were negative. Clearly positive results were also found in 35 out of 152 laboratory guineapig sera. Positive results were found in only two out of six breeding centres, but in three out of three experimental units, all of which purchased guineapigs from one of the seropositive breeding colonies. The diseased guineapigs recovered fully after treatment with vitamins in the drinking water, a treatment used for guineapig lameness by small animal practitioners. A theory that vitamin C deficient guineapigs are, due to an impaired steroid secretion, predisposed to succumbing to infection and develop demyelinating disease similar to that in TMEV infected mice is discussed briefly. Guineapig sera were also tested serologically for other infections. Antibodies against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Clostridium piliforme and Toxoplasma gondii were not found, but one breeding colony was infected with adenovirus, pneumonia virus of mice, reovirus type 3, Sendai virus, parainfluenza (simian) virus type 5 and Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Two other breeding colonies were infected with both reovirus type 3 and E. cuniculi. In all three experimental units infection with adenovirus was observed, and in two of these Sendai virus and E. cuniculi antibodies were also found. The pet shop guineapigs were infected with adenovirus, reovirus type 3 and E. cuniculi.
Polio and Herd Immunity
The polio vaccine in U.S. was not attributed to herd immunity. Research done prior to the use of the vaccine stated that in any epidemic 98.2% of people already had antibodies. Only 36% of people in the USA had had the primary 3 shots of SALK by 1958. The majority of these people did not need the vaccine, and the small herd effect of 36% of the population that was vaccinated is also negligible. The AMA removed all copies of the Polio Surveillance Units Reports which clearly showed that up until 1962, the percentage of paralytic and non-paralytic polio was more in the vaccinated community than the unvaccinated.
Let’s go back through time and take a look at some issues …
If you look at the oldest graphs, they show that most polio disappeared by the time less than half the U.S. had been vaccinated the first time, yet everyone had to be revaccinated?
How did the definition of paralytic polio differ in 1953 from the one in 1955, 1956 and 1959? Why were those changes made?
When vaccinated people got polio within 30 days of a vaccine it was not considered to be related to the vaccine, when the allowable incubation time is relevant?
All Salk vaccine were Live, not inactivated. The primary use of OPV during epidemics isn’t to create herd immunity. It is used to disrupt the circulation of all enteric viruses by filling a gap and to try to prevent the spread.
Headache and general malaise; gastro-intestinal disturbance (i.e. diarrhea, vomiting); sore throat; stiffness of neck and back; aching muscles. On the fourth or fifth day, if muscles are affected, paralysis may spread during the following 36 hours. Coughing, swallowing or speech may be affected. As with any disease, susceptibility is the key.
The number one preventative measure is to avoid contaminated food and water. The second most important preventative measure is to ensure a healthy digestive system. Rest in bed; physiotherapy can help muscles recover; homeopathic remedies can treat many of the symptoms associated with Polio. Gelsemium is the main homeopathic remedy, for its action on muscles and motor nerves. Recovery occurs in most cases.
Viral or aseptic meningitis, Guillaine-Barré Syndrome (GBS), Chinese paralytic syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, epidemic cholera, cholera morbus, spinal meningitis, spinal apoplexy, inhibitory palsy, intermittent fever, famine fever, worm fever, bilious remittent fever, ergotism, encephalomyeloradiculoneuritis, post-polio syndrome, acute flaccid paralysis.
CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME: THE HIDDEN POLIO EPIDEMIC by Dr. William Campbell Douglas
CFS, also known as, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis. Myalgic means Muscle and encephalo means brain. myelitis means inflammation of the covering of the nerves.
polio is contracted from ingesting the virus, which then goes to the small intestine and reproduces there. With VACCINES, particularly the OPV Sabin vaccine, the traditional polio viruses were replaced by other members of the same family called Coxsack e viruses.
When the Coxsackie viruses were isolated from cfs patients, they didn’t realize that it was a new form of polio. This new polio was caused by the replacement of the polio viruses with their partners, the Coxsackie viruses. the researchers didn’t get the connection at first. the new polio cases were labled post-polio syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, or myalgic encephalomyelitis.
Modern genetics has confirmed the genetic similarity between polio viruses, Coxsackie, and a group called the Echo viruses. Before the invention of the Salk and Sabin vaccines, there were only three polio viruses. Now, with the alterations of the human gut over the years as a result of these vaccines, there are at least 72 viral strains that can cause polio-like diseases.
the evidence of Polio Changing rather than the elimination of IT is not new. After the introduction of the vaccines, the trends of NEW polio INCREASED and it has been recognized by neurologists for 40 years. The terms atypical and abortive polio have been kept quiet because it would point to the fact that polio is more common than lead to believe and caused by polio vaccination.
infantile paralysis as polio was called then, has become in the modern era adult paresis (muscle weakness). Dr. Elizabeth Dowsett, a microbiologist from Britain. states: True CFS “strikes one clinically as being polio-like and it has often been diagnosed as ‘nonparalytic polio.” Dowsett says the term chronic fatigue syndrome was “an unfortunate mistake” because it is a neurological disease and the doctors waiting six months before doing anything so they could label it “chronic,” reuined the chances of identifying the virus. the patient now has chronic new-age polio that will not be amenable to treatment.
If CFS is a form of polio, and 72 viruses are in everyones intestine, then why doesn’t everyone come down with CFS? NOT EVERYONE will come down with a disease simply because they are exposed to it. Some people have stronger immune systems than others and that is where good nutrition and hygiene come in. During the polio epidemic of the ’30s and ’40s, most of the children who had polio, didn’t even know they had it. It was passed off as a cold. Multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, CFS, Tourette syndrome, learning disabilities, Guillain Barre Syndrome, idiopathic epilepsy, and other neurological conditions may very well be forms of polio induced by these vaccines. The Salk and Sabin vaccines opened a Pandora’s box as we now have 72 types of polio rather than three!
In the U.S. DDT was used during polio epidemics. It was thought that polio was spread by flies and mosquitoes. In areas where DDT was used, polio increased instead of decreased. The U.S. was spraying it everywhere, so much so, even cows got polio. The description of polio matched symptoms of DDT poisoning as well. In Sweden and Sicily the same thing happened. Then there is epigenetics. Dr. Wyatt wrote two medical articles which talked about genetic susceptibility to polio.